carotid sinus syndrome


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Related to carotid sinus syndrome: vasovagal syncope, Neurocardiogenic syncope, sick sinus syndrome

carotid

 [kah-rot´id]
pertaining to the principal artery of the neck (the carotid artery). See anatomic Table of Arteries in the Appendices.
carotid endarterectomy surgical removal of atherosclerotic plaques within an extracranial carotid artery, usually the common carotid, done to prevent stroke in patients with 70 per cent or greater carotid stenosis. Patients who have a stroke in evolution or have recently had a stroke are not good candidates for the procedure. Surgery at this time could cause an infarcted area of the brain to hemorrhage when its blood supply is suddenly increased. In addition, there is a low success rate for those patients who have total occlusion of the internal carotid arteries.
Patient Care. Immediately after surgery special monitoring is necessary to assess the patient's neurologic status, including level of consciousness, orientation, and motor activity, especially on the side opposite the surgery. Because of the location of the surgical incision, an enlarging hematoma can rapidly produce respiratory distress. Aspiration also is possible because a hematoma can obstruct the trachea and damage the laryngeal nerve, preventing closure of the glottis.

Crucial observations include evaluation of neck size, noting the patient's ability to swallow, close observation and measurement of drainage, and measurement of respiratory rate and character. A tracheostomy tray and suction apparatus should be available even after the patient is transferred from the recovery room or intensive care unit. Neurologic assessment is necessary to detect complications associated with postoperative cerebral ischemia and cranial nerve damage. Because ischemia of the myocardium is also a possibility, continuous electrocardiograph monitoring is required. Since blood pressure may be increased by surgery, postoperative hypertension is not uncommon.
 Carotid endarterectomy. Plaques are removed from the artery to improve blood flow. Modified from Black and Matassarin-Jacobs, 2001.
carotid sinus syndrome syncope sometimes associated with convulsive seizures due to overactivity of the carotid sinus reflex. In certain susceptible persons the carotid sinus is too easily stimulated and symptoms are produced by sudden turning of the head or the wearing of a tight collar. Transient attacks of numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, headache, and in some cases aphasia may also occur. The condition most commonly affects older males and may be a cause of unexplained falls. Diagnosis can be confirmed by a gentle massage of the carotid sinus area of a patient under monitoring. asystole for longer than 3 seconds or a reduction in systolic blood pressure of more than 500 mm Hg are considered positive indications. The syndrome can be subdivided into cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed types. Dual chamber cardiac pacing is indicated in the cardioinhibitory and mixed types. Patients who have this condition should be educated to avoid triggering events.

ca·rot·id si·nus syn·drome

confustion or syncope due to decreased cerebral perfusion caused by a hyperactive carotid sinus, producing marked bradycardia.

carotid sinus syndrome

a temporary loss of consciousness that sometimes results in provoked convulsive seizures as a result of the intensity of the carotid sinus reflex when pressure builds in one or both carotid sinuses. Also called carotid sinus syncope.

carotid sinus syndrome

Carotid sinus syncope, see there.

ca·rot·id si·nus syn·drome

(kă-rot'id sī'nŭs sin'drōm)
Stimulation of a hyperactive carotid sinus, causing a marked fall in blood pressure due to vasodilation, cardiac slowing, or both; syncope with or without convulsions or atrioventricular block may occur.

carotid sinus syndrome

A tendency to faint or to suffer convulsions or even CARDIAC ARREST as a result of over-stimulation of the carotid sinus causing extreme slowing of the heart.

Charcot,

Jean Martin, French neurologist, 1825-1893.
Charcot arteries - any one of a variety of small cerebral arteries. Synonym(s): lenticulostriate arteries
Charcot arthritis
Charcot arthropathy
Charcot bath - for patients with arterial disorders.
Charcot change
Charcot disease - Synonym(s): Lou Gehrig disease
Charcot fever - Synonym(s): Charcot intermittent fever
Charcot gait - the gait of hereditary ataxia.
Charcot intermittent fever - fever, chills, right upper quadrant pain, and jaundice associated with intermittently obstructing common duct stones. Synonym(s): Charcot fever
Charcot joint - a neuropathic arthropathy that occurs with tabes dorsalis (tabetic neurosyphilis). Synonym(s): tabetic arthropathy
Charcot laryngeal vertigo - fainting as a result of a coughing spell, most often occurring in heavy-set male smokers with chronic bronchitis. Synonym(s): Charcot vertigo; tussive syncope
Charcot spine
Charcot syndrome - a condition caused by ischemia of the muscles. Synonym(s): intermittent claudication
Charcot triad - (1) in multiple (disseminated) sclerosis, the three symptoms: nystagmus, tremor, and scanning speech; - (2) combination of jaundice, fever, and upper abdominal pain that occurs as a result of cholangitis.
Charcot vertigo - Synonym(s): Charcot laryngeal vertigo
Charcot-Böttcher crystalloids - spindle-shaped crystalloids found in human Sertoli cells.
Charcot-Leyden crystals - crystals found in the sputum in bronchial asthma. Synonym(s): asthma crystals; Charcot-Neumann crystals; Charcot-Robin crystals; Leyden crystals
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease - a group of three familial peripheral neuromuscular disorders, sharing the common feature of marked wasting of the more distal extremities. Synonym(s): peroneal muscular atrophy; Tooth disease
Charcot-Neumann crystals - Synonym(s): Charcot-Leyden crystals
Charcot-Robin crystals - Synonym(s): Charcot-Leyden crystals
Charcot-Weiss-Baker syndrome - stimulation of a hyperactive carotid sinus, causing a marked fall in blood pressure. Synonym(s): carotid sinus syndrome
Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome - inability to recognize objects by sight, usually caused by bilateral parieto-occipital lesions.
Erb-Charcot disease - see under Erb

ca·rot·id si·nus syn·drome

(kă-rot'id sī'nŭs sin'drōm)
Confustion or syncope due to decreased cerebral perfusion caused by a hyperactive carotid sinus, producing marked bradycardia.

carotid

relating to the carotid artery, the principal artery of the neck. See Table 9.

carotid body
a small neurovascular structure lying in the bifurcation of the common carotid arteries, containing chemoreceptors that monitor oxygen content in blood and help to regulate respiration. Called also glomus caroticum.
carotid body tumors
usually unilateral nonfunctional adenoma, chemodectoma, nonchromaffin paraganglioma, or locally invasive carcinoma which may cause deviation of the trachea.
carotid canal
transmits the internal carotid artery to the cranial cavity through the pars petrosa of the temporal bone.
carotid sheath
contains the common carotid artery, internal jugular vein and vagosympathetic trunk.
carotid sinus
a dilatation of the proximal portion of the internal carotid or distal portion of the common carotid artery, containing in its wall pressoreceptors which are stimulated by changes in blood pressure.
carotid sinus reflex
slowing of the heart rate when pressure is applied over the carotid sinus.
carotid sinus syndrome
syncope sometimes associated with convulsive seizures due to overactivity of the carotid sinus reflex.