cardiopulmonary arrest


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Related to cardiopulmonary arrest: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction

car·di·o·pul·mo·nar·y ar·rest

an arrest resulting in absence of cardiac and pulmonary activity.

cardiopulmonary arrest

arrest

(a-rest') [Fr. arester fr L. arrestare, to stop]
1. The state of being stopped.
2. To bring to a stop.

active phase arrest

Cessation of the progress of labor despite treatment with appropriate doses of oxytocin. It is an indication of the need for cesarean delivery.

bradyasystolic arrest

Cardiac arrest marked by an extremely slow pulse, usually less than 30 beats/min. This can be due to increased vagal stimulation, progressive heart block, hypoxemia, drugs such as beta blockers, or other causes.

cardiac arrest

Sudden cessation of functional circulation. In the U.S., about 1000 people die daily as a result of cardiac arrest. Synonym: cardiopulmonary arrest; sudden cardiac arrest See: arrhythmia; myocardial infarction

Etiology

Coronary artery disease is present in most victims. Cardiac arrest is usually caused by myocardial infarction or ventricular arrhythmias. Contributing causes include cardiomyopathies, valvular heart disease, diseases of the electrical conducting system of the heart (such as the long QT syndrome or the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome), myocarditis, chest trauma, severe electrolyte disturbances, and intoxications with drugs of abuse or prescribed agents, e.g., digitalis. Physical exertion or extreme emotional stress sometimes precipitates cardiac arrest.

Symptoms

Abrupt loss of consciousness, followed by death within an hour of onset, is the typical presentation of cardiac arrest.

Treatment

Opening the airway, establishing effective respiration, and restoring circulation (with chest compression and defibrillation) are the keys to treating cardiac arrest. The effectiveness of treatment depends upon the speed with which resuscitation begins and upon the patient's underlying condition. Because most episodes of sudden cardiac arrest are unwitnessed, most patients die without treatment (spontaneous recovery from cardiac arrest in the absence of advanced cardiac life support is very rare). For resuscitated patients, therapies include implantable defibrillators, beta blockers, antiarrhythmic drugs, and, in patients with coronary artery disease, modification of risk factors, i.e., treatment of hypertension, smoking cessation, and lipid-lowering diets and drugs. See: table, advanced cardiac life support

* IO=intraosseous † IV=intravenous cannula ‡ ET=endotracheal
RouteProsCons
Peripheral IVEasiest to insert during chest compressions; least traumatic to the patient.Drugs infused into a peripheral vein take several minutes to reach the heart.
Central IVDrugs and fluids infused into central veins reach the heart in seconds.Insertion may be difficult during chest compressions, intubation, and defibrillation. Arterial injury, pneumothorax, hemothorax, and other complications are common in emergency insertions.
IntraosseousDrugs and fluids infused into marrow reach the central circulation rapidly.Clinical experience with IO* insertion is limited relative to IV† insertion.
EndotrachealMay be used for drug administration when an airway is present, but other forms of access have not been established.Double or triple the IV† dose is needed to achieve similar drug effect. Drugs given ET‡ should be diluted in 5–10 ml of sterile water. Correct placement of the ET tube must be confirmed before use. Unlike the other modes of access, this route cannot be used to infuse high volumes of fluids.

cardiopulmonary arrest

Cardiac arrest.

cleavage arrest

In embryology, an obstruction to or a halt in cell division.

deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

Abbreviation: DHCA
The induction of profoundly low body temperatures, e.g. 20°C (68°F), during surgery to reduce the impact of low organ perfusion and ischemic damage.

epiphyseal arrest

Cessation of the growth of long bones.

pelvic arrest

A condition in which the presenting part of the fetus becomes fixed in the maternal pelvis.

pulseless arrest

An umbrella term for asystole and pulseless electrical activity.

respiratory arrest

Cessation of spontaneous respiration.

sinus arrest

A condition in which the sinus node of the heart does not initiate impulses for heartbeat. If this condition persists, it usually requires implantation of a permanent cardiac pacemaker.
See: artificial cardiac pacemaker

sudden cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest.
References in periodicals archive ?
Please click to access full Prescribing Information for Portrazza, including Boxed Warnings for cardiopulmonary arrest and hypomagnesemia at http://pi.
Certain comorbidities in the SCI population may decrease the prognosis of survival after cardiopulmonary arrest.
Cardiac arrests were identified by-querying delivery-related hospitalizations for ICD-9 CM diagnostic codes designating cardiopulmonary arrest, ventricular fibrillation, or closed chest cardiac massage.
A 16-year-old male, with a history of recurrent asthma, presented in cardiopulmonary arrest due to spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax.
ABSTRACT To increase cardiopulmonary arrest survival, the American Heart Association developed basic and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) courses that expose participants to realistic learning situations.
It's probable that lives could be saved and outcomes improved if RRTs were dispatched to the bedside at the first sign of patients experiencing a clinical decline, thereby preventing a cardiopulmonary arrest or Code Blue.
Paul Chan of the University of Missouri in Kansas City and colleagues studied whether such rapid response teams helped reduce hospital-wide incidents of cardiopulmonary arrest and death rates.
4) A number of possible mechanisms by which brain contusion can lead to cardiopulmonary arrest have been identified, e.
It gave the cause of death as "open head injury with depressed skull fracture, leading to cardiopulmonary arrest.
This is one reason we have achieved a 40% survival to discharge rate for cardiopulmonary arrest patients.
24, 2006, of cardiopulmonary arrest caused by lung cancer in Burke, Va.
The purpose of the RRT is to provide timely, appropriate intervention before a patient has a cardiopulmonary arrest.