Surgery was performed through a median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass and cold cardioplegic arrest
1 During the last 30 years, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was performed primarily with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass system ("on pump") using cardioplegic arrest
1) Although cardioplegic arrest
is induced during cardiac surgery, the incidence of complications such as peri-operative myocardial infarction remains high (9.
Hence, surgery was performed on Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB) with moderate hypothermia and cold-blood cardioplegic arrest
after cross clamping the aorta and looping and snugging the pulmonary artery.
Ischaemic reperfusion injury (IRI) following cardioplegic arrest
results in increased ROS production.
Apart from the four patients who underwent the extracardiac conduit procedure, aortic clamp was placed in all the remaining patients after CPB was established, and cardioplegic arrest
was achieved by the administration of a single dose of crystalloid cardioplegia.
The method used for short-term preservation consists of initial cardioplegic arrest
of the donor heart with a hyperkalaemic and hypertonic solution, together with topical cooling of the myocardium.
In humans with normal left ventricular (LV) function, the use of L-arginine cardioplegic arrest
during coronary artery graft surgery has been shown to significantly decrease the biochemical markers of oxidative stress (4,5) inflammation (6) and myocardial cell death (4,7).
A rabbit model of antegrade selective cerebral perfusion with cardioplegic arrest
16) The use of CPB and the elimination of cardioplegic arrest
may be beneficial for the short-term survival of chronic hemodialysis patients.
2 Besides it is claimed that atrial manipulations cannulation cardioplegic arrest
prolongation of cross clamp duration electrolyte disorders temporary ischemia perioperative trauma epicardial inflammatory reactions euthyroid syndrome cessation of beta blockers due to operation advanced age male sex hypertension myocardial infarction history respiratory problems creation of hematoma hypoxia hypovolemia sepsis weak protection of atrial tissue release of systemic mediators plays role in the development of AF.
Especially cardioplegic arrest
of the heart in high-risk situations as elderly patients, compromised ventricle, re-operations and high PAP may make weaning from the CPB problematic.