cardiac metastasisThe indirect—haematogenous, lymphatic or other non-contiguous—development of a malignant tumour in the heart or its surroundings. Neoplastic effusions are more often haemorrhagic, and most commonly affect the pericardium. Primary heart tumours are rare—between 0.001% and 0.28%. Metastases to the heart are found in up to 18% of post mortems of patients who die with cancer.
Common primary tumours
Pleural mesothelioma, melanoma, mediastinal primary tumours.
Nonspecific conduction defects and arrhythmias, cardiac dysfunction and heart failure due to pericardial effusion, intramural oedema due to lymphatic outflow, filling impairment due to endocardial involvement, and direct myocardial invasion.
Sites of origin (“donors”)
Endocardium Lung, kidney and hepatocellular carcinomas
Myocardium Leukaemia and lymphoma
Vena cava Renal and hepatocellular carcinomas