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Related to cardiac index: cardiac output
index(pl. indexes, in´dices) (L.)
1. the numerical ratio of measurement of any part in comparison with a fixed standard.
Barthel index an objective, standardized tool for measuring functional status. The individual is scored in a number of areas depending upon independence of performance. Total scores range from 0 (complete dependence) to 100 (complete independence).
bleeding index any of various methods of assessing bleeding in the gingival sulcus before or after treatment.
body mass index (BMI) the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters, a measure of body fat that gives an indication of nutritional status.
cardiac index cardiac output corrected for body size.
cephalic index 100 times the maximum breadth of the skull divided by its maximum length.
citation index an index listing all publications appearing in a set of source publications (e.g., articles in a defined group of journals) that cite a given publication in their bibliographies.
Colour index a publication of the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists containing an extensive list of dyes and dye intermediates. Each chemically distinct compound is identified by a specific number, the C.I. number, avoiding the confusion of trivial names used for dyes in the dye industry.
erythrocyte indices the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These are all useful for evaluating anemias because they provide information on the size of the erythrocytes and the concentration of hemoglobin. Called also red cell or red blood cell indices.
glycemic index a ranking of foods based on the response of postprandial blood sugar levels as compared with a reference food, usually either white bread or glucose. See table.
left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI) an index of the amount of work performed by the heart.
leukopenic index a fall of 1000 or more in the total leukocyte count within 1.5 hours after ingestion of a given food; it indicates allergic hypersensitivity to that food.
index Medicus a monthly publication of the national library of medicine in which the world's leading biomedical literature is indexed by author and subject.
opsonic index a measure of opsonic activity determined by the ratio of the number of microorganisms phagocytized by normal leukocytes in the presence of serum from an individual infected by the microorganism, to the number phagocytized in serum from a normal individual.
phagocytic index any arbitrary measure of the ability of neutrophils to ingest native or opsonized particles determined by various assays; it reflects either the average number of particles ingested or the rate at which particles are cleared from the blood or culture medium.
red blood cell indices (red cell indices) erythrocyte indices.
refractive index the refractive power of a medium compared with that of air (assumed to be 1).
short increment sensitivity index (SISI) a hearing test in which randomly spaced, 0.5-second tone bursts are superimposed at 1- to 5-decibel increments in intensity on a carrier tone having the same frequency and an intensity of 20 decibels above the speech recognition threshold.
therapeutic index originally, the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the minimum curative dose; now defined as the ratio of the median lethal dose (LD50) to the median effective dose (ED50). It is used in assessing the safety of a drug.
the amount of blood ejected by the heart in a unit of time divided by the body surface area; usually expressed in liters per minute per square meter.
a measure of the cardiac output of a patient per square meter of body surface area. Its normal range in a healthy adult is 2.8 to 4.2 L/min/m2.
cardiac indexCardiology The cardiac output of blood–L/min/m2 surface area Lab medicine The ratio of CK-MB to total CK, an indicator of myocardial ischemia, and ↑ risk for acute MI. See Cardiac profile guideline, CK-MB, Troponin I.
car·di·ac in·dex(kahr'dē-ak in'deks)
The amount of blood ejected by the heart in a unit of time divided by the body surface area; usually expressed in liters per minute per square meter. The normal average is 2.8 L.
car·di·ac in·dex(kahr'dē-ak in'deks)
Amount of blood ejected by heart in a unit of time divided by the body surface area.
1. pertaining to the heart. See also heart.
2. pertaining to the gastric cardia.
the impedance to ventricular emptying presented by aortic pressure.
an uncommon clinical procedure. May be performed via thoracotomy or with a biopsy catheter introduced intravenously.
the insertion of a catheter into a vein or artery and guiding it into the interior of the heart for purposes of measuring cardiac output, determining the oxygen content of blood in the heart chambers, and evaluating the structural components of the heart.
in cardiac disease the compensation for the inefficiency of the heart's pump action by enlisting the various reserves of the heart such as hypertrophy, enlargement, increase in rate, so as to maintain circulatory equilibrium and prevent the appearance of signs of congestive heart failure.
an emergency measure to empty the ventricles of the heart in an effort to circulate the blood, and also to stimulate the heart so that it will resume its pumping action. Involves the application of pressure through the thoracic wall. More commonly used in animals than other forms of cardiac massage.
cardiac conducting cells
specialized cardiac fibers modified to conduct impulses from the A-V node via the septum to the ventricles. Called also Purkinje fibers.
cardiac conducting system
the cardiac tissue responsible for electrical conduction, made up of the sinoatrial node, the atrioventricular node, and the atrioventricular bundle and cardiac conducting fibers.
cardiac depressor nerve
a branch of the vagus nerve composed of afferent nerve fibers which arise around the base of the heart; called also aortic nerve.
the heart volume is increased but the effective mass of cardiac muscle is not. A dilated heart has lost some of its reserve.
the area of the chest wall over which a dull sound, indicating the position of the heart, can be elicited by percussion.
see heart failure.
see ventricular fibrillation.
see cardiac cirrhosis.
cardiac flow load
the work required of the heart can be increased by a need for an increased flow rate of blood, e.g. when there is an anastomosis, congenital arteriovenous defect, portosystemic shunt.
cardiac function curves
statistical curves used in modeling the cardiovascular functions, relating e.g. venous return to cardiac output.
in the cardiac region of the gastric wall; branched, tubular, coiled, mucus-secreting.
the glycosides of Digitalis purpurea (digitoxin, gitalin and gitoxin) and digoxin (from D. lanata). Strophanthin and ouabain are glycosides found in Strophanthus spp. Other cardiac glycosides are present in the skin of toads (Bufo maritimus, B. vulgaris), but are of toxicological rather than therapeutic interest.
cardiac horse sickness
see african horse sickness.
enlargement of the heart coincident with an increase in muscle mass; an indication of response to an increase in load which may or may not be associated with disease. It is an expression of cardiac compensation but some of the cardiac reserve has been lost.
see cardiac impulse. Called also apex beat.
cardiac output divided by the animal's body surface area in m2. The normal range for dogs is 1.8-3.5 l/m2.
left-sided cardiac enlargement
may involve either the left ventricle or atrium, or both, and can be demonstrated on radiographs and electrocardiography. Seen most commonly in mitral valvular disease in dogs.
manual massage of the heart or stimulation with an electrical current through an open thoracic wall. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with cardiac compression.
the most cranial of the gastric mucosae; secretes only mucus, except in pigs, in which the area covered by this mucosa is much larger than in the other species and bicarbonate is also secreted.
see heart murmur.
the volume of blood pumped per unit of time. May be calculated by oxygen consumption measurement or determined by dilution of indocyanine green or cold saline, using catheters with thermistors placed intravenously (thermodilution method). It can be estimated clinically by measuring heart rate, pulse quality or pressure, and assessment of tissue perfusion, e.g. capillary refill time.
employing cardiac pacemakers to control heart rate.
ventricular end-diastolic volume.
cardiac pressure load
the stress of working against an elevated blood pressure in the arterial circuit; one of the two major groups of causes of heart disease; the other is flow load.
cardiac racing syndrome
a disease of companion birds manifested by a sudden increase in heart rate, up to 1000/min, in the period immediately after being restrained. Death occurs within a few seconds.
the reserve mechanisms in the heart to compensate for defects which could make the heart's pumping action ineffective. The reserve mechanisms include hypertrophy, enlargement, increase in heart rate and an increase in stroke volume, a result of the increase in muscle mass and the enlargement of the ventricles.
right-sided cardiac enlargement
may involve either the right ventricle or atrium. Occurs in heartworm disease in dogs.
penetration of the myocardium by a reticular foreign body in cows, or rupture of a patch of chronic fibrotic myocarditis in horses, causes cardiac tamponade and sudden death.
may increase as a result of hypertrophy, dilatation or a combination of the two. A common belief with some scientific support is that performance of horses in sprint races is closely related to heart size.
cardiac stroke volume
the amount of blood ejected with each systole.
cardiac valve fenestration
the valve surface is incomplete, creating a lattice effect; mostly congenital defects in foals.
cardiac valve hematocysts
congenital, blood-filled cysts on the atrioventricular valves considered to be of no pathogenic significance.
cardiac valve laceration
tearing of the valve tissue or attachment to myocardium may occur spontaneously or as a sequel to endocarditis; adds a significant additional flow load to the heart.
cardiac valve rupture
see cardiac valve laceration (above).
heart valves formed by evaginations of the cardiac and vascular endothelium supported by connective tissue; includes atrioventricular and semilunar valves on both sides of the heart.
cardiac valvular disease
see valvular disease.
cardiac vascular shunts
includes patent foramen ovale, ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, patent ductus arteriosus.
includes effective work—that needed for the onward propulsion of blood through the correct channels against arterial pressure, total work—includes all of the work performed by the heart including some involved in moving blood in the wrong direction.