carcinoid syndrome


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to carcinoid syndrome: Carcinoid tumor

carcinoid

 [kahr´sĭ-noid]
1. a yellow circumscribed tumor of the gastrointestinal tract or bronchus formed from chromaffin cells. See also carcinoid syndrome.
carcinoid syndrome a symptom complex associated with carcinoid tumors (argentaffinomas), marked by attacks of severe cyanotic flushing of the skin lasting from minutes to days and by watery diarrhea, bronchoconstrictive attacks, sudden drops in blood pressure, edema, and ascites. Symptoms are caused by serotonin, prostaglandins, and other biologically active substances secreted by the tumor.

The specific symptoms associated with this disorder depend upon the site of the primary tumor; tumors are found most commonly in the appendix and the terminal third of the ileum but can also be in the bronchi, ovaries, testes, and anywhere along the entire length of the alimentary tract. The full set of carcinoid symptoms are manifested only when the liver is involved.

Diagnosis of the condition is established by a 24-hour urine test for 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the end product of the breakdown of tryptophan to serotonin. Patients with carcinoid syndrome may have very high levels of 5-HIAA, 100 to 500 mg in 24 hours.

Carcinoid tumors are not always benign and should be approached as if they were malignant growths. Surgical excision of the tumor and any associated mesenteric nodes is the treatment of choice. Chemotherapy can be used with metastatic disease, and other drugs are prescribed as indicated to manage the hypotension, diarrhea, flushing, and other symptoms. Efforts are made to improve nutrition and to avoid serotonin-containing foods, such as walnuts and bananas, which are known to precipitate an attack and make accurate diagnosis difficult.

car·ci·noid syn·drome

a combination of symptoms and lesions mostly produced by the release of serotonin from carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract that have metastasized to the liver; consists of irregular mottled blushing, flat angiomas of the skin, acquired tricuspid and pulmonary stenosis often with regurgitation, occasionally with some minor involvement of valves on the left side of the heart, diarrhea, bronchial spasm, mental aberration, and excretion of large quantities of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid.

carcinoid syndrome

the systemic effects of serotonin-secreting carcinoid tumors, which include flushing, diarrhea, cramps, skin lesions resembling pellagra, labored breathing, palpitations, and valvular heart disease, especially of the tricuspid and pulmonary valve. Treatment includes surgical excision of the tumor, if feasible. Chemotherapy and radiation treatment are occasionally used. Also called argentaffinoma syndrome. See also carcinoid.

carcinoid syndrome

Oncology A symptom complex caused by carcinoids, which arise from the enterochromaffin system, a system most concentrated in the midgut; carcinoids release vasoactive substances–eg, serotonin, and its metabolite, 5-HIAA, as well as bradykinin, histamine, PG, substance P; serotonin's precursor is tryptophan, used by the body to produce niacin and some proteins; carcinoid Sx are most common in metastases, often from a primary ileal carcinoid metastatic to the liver Clinical Episodic skin flushing on the face, spreading to the trunk, then telangiectasia, precipitated by alcohol, food, stress, or liver palpation; also diarrhea or GI obstructive symptoms, bronchospasm, wheezing, pleural, peritoneal, retroperitoneal, endocardial fibrosis of the right valves and right ventricular wall, which may cause failure, carcinoid myopathy and atrophy of type II muscle fibers Lab ↑ Serotonin, 5-HIAA in serum, urine Management Resection. See APUD system, Atypical carcinoid.

car·ci·noid syn·drome

(kahr'si-noyd sin'drōm)
A combination of symptoms and lesions usually produced by the release of serotonin from carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract that have metastasized to the liver; consists of irregular mottled blushing, flat angiomas of the skin, acquired tricuspid and pulmonary stenosis often with regurgitation, diarrhea, bronchial spasm, mental aberration, and excretion of large quantities of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Surgical excision is performed when feasible. Treatment may include chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

carcinoid syndrome

A rare condition in which bowel tumours of cells of endocrine origin spread to other parts of the body and secrete large quantities of highly active substances such as SEROTONIN, HISTAMINE, BRADYKININ, ACTH, INSULIN or growth hormone. These cause symptoms such as flushing, diarrhoea, cramping abdominal pain, serious heart damage, arthritis and asthma. Carcinoid syndrome produces unpredictable and severe swings of blood pressure during general anaesthesia calling for careful anaesthetic management. The SOMATOSTATIN analogue drug octreotide (Sandostatin) is important in this context.

Carcinoid syndrome

The pattern of symptoms (often including asthma and diarrhea) associated with carcinoid tumors of the digestive tract or lungs.

Patient discussion about carcinoid syndrome

Q. what is carcinoid tumors? I had my appendix removed and the doctor came in the room very shocked and said it was full of carcinoid tumors. Im scared to get them somewhere else.

A. ya I have pain all the time but the doctors wont give me anything cuz im so young they don't want me hooked on anything. thank you sooo much for being so kind.

More discussions about carcinoid syndrome
References in periodicals archive ?
We therefore analyzed troponin I, troponin T, and CKMB mass to detect myocardial damage in patients with carcinoid syndrome, who are exposed to increased concentrations of circulating serotonin.
The trial enrolled 135 patients with inadequately controlled carcinoid syndrome in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 250mg three times daily and 500mg three times daily doses of telotristat etiprate over a 12-week treatment period, followed by a 36-week, open-label extension where all patients receive 500mg three times daily doses of telotristat etiprate.
One-third of patients with ileal NETs have metastasis, and patients with liver metastasis show signs of carcinoid syndrome, which manifests with symptoms of flushing and diarrhea from bypassing the hepatic clearance of serotonin from the portal circulation.
Less common and unusual causes of obstruction to right atrial (RA) emptying include congenital tricuspid atresia, RA tumours, carcinoid syndrome, endomyocardial fibrosis, TV vegetations, pacemaker leads or extracardiac tumours.
Cardiac metastases are rare, though when they occur, carcinoid syndrome or metastatic disease to the liver is present a majority of the time.
5 cm, the differentiation was not poor and typical rosette formation was observed; moreover, no symptoms of carcinoid syndrome were observed.
He died of carcinoid syndrome in the latter part of the fall, 2010.
In addition to the most common triggers such as embarrassment or anxiety; a reaction to alcohol or certain foods, temperature and exercise, other causes can include the use of certain types of medication or conditions such as rosacea, the menopause and Carcinoid syndrome.
3) Most patients with strumal carcinoid have no symptoms of carcinoid syndrome like flushing and diarrhoea, but on the contrary few are reported to cause severe constipation (4).
The review of Lexicon's clinical programs will include a presentation of results obtained to date from carcinoid syndrome patients participating in the European Union-based open-label clinical trial of LX1032, an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase that reduces peripheral serotonin production without affecting brain serotonin levels.
Basic concepts of endocrine physiology introduce the book, followed by chapters on the pituitary gland, diabetes mellitus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland and carcinoid syndrome.
52) Clinical carcinoid syndrome may be evident in up to 10% of cases.