carbonic anhydrase inhibitors


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Related to carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: acetazolamide

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

A class of drug that act by blocking the action of the enzyme CARBONIC ANHYDRASE. This enzyme greatly speeds up the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid, a compound needed for the production of many of the body's secretions. Carbonic anhydrase is present in high concentration in the eye, the kidneys, stomach lining and pancreas. Inhibitor drugs reduce the rate of secretion of aqueous humour in the eye and is useful in treating GLAUCOMA. These drugs are also valuable in treating mountain sickness, periodic paralysis and absence attacks (petit mal). The group includes ACETAZOLAMIDE and DORZOLAMIDE.

diuretics

powerful drugs, often termed 'water tablets', that control hypertension and peripheral oedema; action of some local anaesthetics is antagonized by concomitant use of some diuretics (see Table 1), e.g. aldosterone antagonists (e.g. spironolactone); carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, e.g. acetazolamide; loop diuretics, e.g. furosemide; osmotic diuretics, e.g. mannitol; potassium-sparing diuretics, e.g. amiloride, or in combination with other diuretics; thiazide diuretics, e.g. bendroflumethiazide
Table 1: Principal drug interactions of local anaesthetic agents and other medications
Local anaesthetic agent Proprietary name Principal drug interactionsEffect of interaction
Lidocaine
Xylocaine
Antiarrhythmic agents
Antibacterial agents
Antipsychotics
Antivirals
Beta-blockers
Diuretics
Dolasetron
Ulcer-healing drugs
Increased myocardial depression
Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias if lidocaine is given with quinpristin/dalfopristin
Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias if lidocaine is given with any drug that prolongs the QT interval of the cardiac cycle
Plasma concentration of lidocaine increased by amprenavir, atazanavir and lopinavir
Increased myocardial depression
Increased risk of lidocaine toxicity when given with propranolol
The action of lidocaine is antagonized by the hypokalaemia caused by acetazolamide, loop diuretics or thiazide and related diuretics (i.e. a greater dose of lidocaine would be required to achieve anaesthesia)
Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia if lidocaine is given with dolasetron
Plasma concentration of lidocaine increased when given with cimetidine; risk of lidocaine toxicity increased with cimetidine
Bupivacaine
Marcain
Levo-bupivacaine
Chirocaine
Beta-blockersIncreased risk of bupivacaine toxicity when given with propranolol
Increased risk of myocardial depression if given with other antiarrhythmic agents
Prilocaine
Citanest
Antiarrhythmic agents
Antibacterial agents
Increased risk of myocardial depression if given with antiarrhythmic agents
Increased risk of methaemoglobinaemia if given with sulphonamide antibacterial agents
Ropivacaine
Naropin
AntidepressantsMetabolism of ropivacaine is inhibited by fluvoxamine, thereby enhancing the risk of ropivacaine toxicity
Mepivacaine
Scandonest
Drug not listed in the British National Formulary

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors 

Drugs which inhibit the carbonic anhydrase enzyme in the ciliary epithelium of the ciliary body. This enzyme is essential for the formation of aqueous humour; its reduction results in a decrease in intraocular pressure. Those in use are sulfonamide derivatives. They are administered systemically (e.g. acetazolamide) or topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Examples: acetazolamide, brinzolamide, dichlorphenamide, dorzolamide.
References in periodicals archive ?
The global glaucoma therapeutics market segmentation is based on drug class (alpha agonist, beta blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, cholinergic, combined medication, prostaglandin analogs), end users (ambulatory surgical centers, hospitals, ophthalmic clinics).
Case 3###70###Female###Left###Beta blocker, Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, Prostaglandin analogue,, alpha agonist
Epstein RJ, Allen RC, Lunde MW Organic impotence associated with carbonic anhydrase inhibitor therapy for glaucoma.
These data are comparable to data from others, showing the effects of acetazolamide as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor on HPV.
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (Diamox 500 mg followed by oral acetazolamide 250 mg 4 times daily.
It was unclear if any patients taking a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor experienced an allergic reaction.
In diabetics, the oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may raise blood and urine sugar levels.
The warning advises caution when zonisamide is used with other drugs that predispose patients to heat-related disorders, such as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and drugs that have anticholinergic activity.
In the general population, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and potassium-sparring diuretics are not very effective unless they are used in combination with other agents.
The market is segmented by classes of drug: prostaglandins, beta-blockers, alpha-adrenerigic agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and fixed-dose combinations.
Pharmacological and ocular hypotensive properties of topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

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