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a procedure, popular with long-distance runners and other athletes, of filling muscles with a large glycogen pool before competing in an athletic event; often, the athlete consumes few carbohydrates for 3 days, followed by a largely carbohydrate diet for the last 3 days before the event.
A dietary practice often adopted by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, prior to competition that increases carbohydrate reserves in muscle tissue through the consumption of extra quantities of high-starch foods.
a dietary practice of some endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, intended to increase glycogen stores in the muscle tissue. The original, or "classic," carbohydrate loading regimen began with a period of several days on a low-carbohydrate diet designed to deplete stored glycogen, followed by consumption of a diet high in complex carbohydrates for 3 days before the event. A more modern approach advocates that athletes routinely consume the high-carbohydrate diet recommended for the general population (55% to 60% of total calories), and eat extra carbohydrates (70%) for 3 days before an event. The practice is controversial and is not universally accepted.
carbohydrate loadingPasta loading Sports medicine The ingestion of a low-fat, low-protein, low-fiber, carbohydrate-rich meal–after previous depletion of the hepatic stores of glycogen, with the intent of maximizing glycogen storage in muscle. Cf Bicarbonate loading, Phosphate loading.
car·bo·hy·drate load·ing(kahr-bō-hī'drāt lōd'ing)
carbohydrate loadingaims to maximize (supercompensate) muscle glycogen stores. This allows athletes to maintain a chosen pace for longer periods and also enhances the performance of a set amount of work (i.e. set distance) by preventing a decline in pace or work output associated with CHO depletion. The procedure is popular with long-distance runners and other endurance-type athletes; it is an important nutritional strategy for events lasting more than 90 minutes, which would otherwise be limited by the depletion of muscle glycogen stores. In practice, loading is performed in two stages: a glycogen depletion stage and a carbohydrate loading phase, typically spread over 6-7 days, which entail a few days of minimal CHO intake with initially high but then decreasing intensity of training, followed by a few days of high CHO diet and minimal exercise.
a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the latter two usually in the proportions of water (CH2O)n. They are classified into mono-, di-, tri-, poly- and heterosaccharides. Carbohydrates in food are an important and immediate source of energy for the body; 1 gram of carbohydrate yields 3.75 calories (16 kilojoules). They are present, at least in small quantities, in most foods, but the chief sources are the sugars and starches of plants. Herbivores are able to utilize the insoluble polysaccharides (crude fiber) because of bacterial conversion to volatile fatty acids by fermentation in the rumen and cecum.
Carbohydrates may be stored in the body as glycogen for future use. If they are eaten in excessive amounts they are converted to and stored as fat. Rapid ingestion of very large amounts in ruminants and horses causes carbohydrate engorgement.
polysaccharides containing either α- and β-type glycosidic bonds. Usually occurring in mixtures in food.
the carbohydrate components of food.
depletion/repletion means of maximally loading glycogen into type II muscle for increased power of muscle contraction.
glucose loss in urine due to diabetes mellitus or chronic renal disease.
series of related enzymic reactions involved in the synthesis and catabolism of carbohydrates.
carbohydrate tolerance test
see glucose tolerance test.