Examples of such modifications are citrullination and carbamylation
In CKD, high blood urea concentrations result in increased protein carbamylation
where isocyanic acid is attached covalently to arginine or lysine residues.
Factors determining hemoglobin carbamylation
in renal failure.
High levels of urea in CKD facilitate posttranslational modification of proteins through a protein carbamylation
In CKD patients there is a relative increase in IDL (intermediate density lipoproteins) and small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles which undergo further modifications like glycation, oxidation and carbamylation
, making them highly atherogenic.
The health effects of chronic exposure to environmental HNCO are unknown, although Roberts and colleagues note the concentrations they measured in smoke "cause carbamylation
at physiologically significant levels.
3 with dose) Erythropoietic Yes Yes activity Use Anaemia Rx-CKD Anaemia Rx-CKD AsialoEPO Carbamylated erythropoietin Molecular weight, kDa 30-34 40 N-linked 0 Carbamylation
of oligosaccharide lysines in EPO-- chains homocitrulline residues Sialic acid residues <0.
Biological influences to glycation, anemia--including iron deficiency and sickle cell disease, polycythemia and altered red blood cell lifespan, and pregnancy1 can influence the accuracy of HbA1c, as can carbamylation
in uremic patients and acetylation.
Jonesboro pressure assembly Jan Larsen, Trosa, Sweden Prevention and treatment Sudhir Shah, Little University of of atherosclerosis by Rock Arkansas Board reducing carbamylation
of Alexei Basnakian, of Trustees.
Then, researchers knew that the "bump" on the protein resulted from chemical changes called carbamylation
Myeloperoxidase-derived chlorinating species induce protein carbamylation
through decomposition of thiocyanate and urea: novel pathways generating dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein.
This instrument is an ion exchange HPLC method approved by the NGSP, it is not affected by carbamylation
or HbAS, it separates labile Alc from stable Alc, and printouts alert the operator when the instrument is unable to identify unusual elution peaks.