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adenosine

 [ah-den´o-sēn]
1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d-ribose and adenine. It is a structural subunit of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The bond between the phosphate groups in ADP or the two bonds between phosphate groups in ATP are called high-energy bonds, because hydrolysis of a high-energy bond provides a large amount of free energy that can be used to drive other processes that would not otherwise occur. The energy that is derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, or proteins is used to synthesize ATP. The energy stored in ATP is then used directly or indirectly to drive all other cellular processes that require energy, of which there are four major types: (1) the transport of molecules and ions across cell membranes against concentration gradients, which maintains the internal environment of the cell and produces the membrane potential for the conduction of nerve impulses; (2) the contraction of muscle fibers and other fibers producing the motion of cells; (3) the synthesis of chemical compounds; (4) the synthesis of other high-energy compounds.
Adenosine.
2. a preparation of adenosine, which acts as a cardiac depressant of automaticity in the sinus node and conduction in the atrioventricular node and as a vasodilator. It is used as an antiarrhythmic and is also used to cause coronary vasodilation during myocardial perfusion imaging in patients who cannot exercise adequately to perform an exercise stress test, administered intravenously.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate a cyclic nucleotide, adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, involved in the action of many hormones, including catecholamines, ACTH, and vasopressin. The hormone binds to a specific receptor on the cell membrane of target cells. This activates an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which produces cyclic AMP from ATP. Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger activating other enzymes within the cell. Abbreviated 3′,5′-AMP, cAMP, and cyclic AMP.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is then converted back to ATP by the metabolic processes oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
adenosine monophosphate (AMP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Called also adenylic acid.
adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. Examples are the splitting of ATP in muscle contraction and the transport of ions across cell membranes.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. Free energy is supplied to drive metabolic reactions, to transport molecules against concentration gradients (active transport), and to produce mechanical motion (contraction of myofibrils and microtubules), when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate or to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate.

cAMP

Abbreviation for adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP).

cAMP

cyclic adenosine monophosphate.

cAMP

abbr.
cyclic AMP

cAMP

cAMP

Abbreviation for adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate.

cAMP

cyclic adenosine monophosphate

cAMP

cyclic adenosine monophosphate.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Governor's Beach (Kalymnos) campsite is one of six licensed camp sites on the island.
This system serves the core area of Saskatchewan Landing Provincial Park, providing water to approximately 339 campsites and various park facilities.
The Outdoor Education Centre opposite the campsite entrance offers a variety of activities including abseiling, canoeing, climbing, rafting and more.
The deal on a seven-night getaway, starting on August 24, with Venue Holidays, includes a fully-equipped Espace tent sleeping two adults and up to four children at Camping Les Pins Parasols at Frejus, a campsite offering sporting facilities for all ages including a swimming pool.
After waiting for two hours at the campsite, the first walker called for help for his friend.
The company reports that the number of campsite reservations it received over the Internet grew by an astounding 645 percent in 1999.
Many campsites are either by lakes, rivers, or on the coast and whoever catches the biggest fish will win a seven-night holiday in a mobile home for up to six people.
Discoveries at the Great Falls campsite include three stone-ringed fire pits, an iron pushpin, a wooden tent stake, a gun flint, and many bison bones bearing the butchery marks of metal tools.
The average cost for a campsite in a national forest is $6 to $12 per night.
There are 29,000 sites around the country for camping out in tents, cabins, lodges and recreational vehicles as well as back country wilderness campsites.
THE campsite at Polis in Paphos is starting the summer season without any of the long-promised upgrades to ageing facilities and a new forestry programme under which around 60 of the trademark eucalyptus trees have been severely cut back.
A CAMPSITE in Elland wants to double in size - to cater for huge numbers of tourists expected in Calderdale.