calving

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calving

act of parturition in a bovine female, and presumably in any animal that bears a calf as its newborn. See also block calving, ease of calving.

calving-to-conception interval
interval between calving and the next conception date.
difficult calving
calving facilities
yards, crush, chute, hot and cold water, shelter, all the resources necessary for capturing and restraining a cow while helping her to deliver a calf.
calving-to-first-estrus interval
interval between calving and the first observed estrus. Data used as a measure of reproductive performance, especially dairy herds where block mating needs to be completed in as brief an interval as possible.
calving-to-first-service interval
alternative to calving-to-first-estrus interval but does not take into account any deferral of mating for managerial reasons.
calving grounds
cows that are run on very extensive grazing may need to be under close surveillance by calving time. A small area of land can be enclosed or the herd herded into it—the calving ground.
calving index
any method of expressing reproductive efficiency on the basis of the number of calves produced. May refer to the average calving interval or to the percentage of calves produced by the mated group of cows.
calving induction
see parturition induction.
calving injury
damage to the uterus, vagina and vulva or surrounding tissues, especially obturator and sciatic nerves, caused by the parturition process.
calving interval
the average time interval between successive calvings.
calving pad
a small area specifically prepared with sand or limestone base and bedding of material such as rice hulls or sawdust, where all cows are located for calving. Allows intense supervision of periparturient and calving cows.
calving paralysis
see maternal obstetric paralysis.
calving pattern
of a herd is a chronological list of calving dates. In seasonally calving herds a compact list indicates high fertility, a stretched out list indicates an indifferent fertility level.
calving percentage
see calf crop percentage.
calving record
a record of the reproductive efficiency of each dam in the form of dates, events and procedures related to reproductive function.
calving season
season of the year at which the herd, or other population of cows, calves, e.g. spring calving.
seasonal calving
when the cows in a herd calve at about the same time. Thus spring calving, autumn calving. Usually used as a management tool to take maximum advantage of seasonal feed supplies or climate.
year-round calving
herd management system in which cows are mated so that some cows in the herd will calve at all times of the year thus maintaining a regular milk supply for a fresh milk supply.
References in periodicals archive ?
For example, if cows are in poor condition when they get to the calving grounds, then protection of these areas may be immaterial.
According to Peter Wilson, the NPC's information systems coordinator, the commission consults with communities to gather information on caribou seasonal range and harvests, water crossings, calving grounds, and migration routes.
Come in June, and you may see portions of the Porcupine caribou herd-165,000 strong-as it migrates to or from calving grounds on the coastal plain.
If there's a human error within that sensitive area, the calving grounds, who would be responsible for it and how would they treat it?
On March 7, Ian Thomas, an award-winning US Geological Survey (USGS) mapmaker, posted several maps on the agency's website, including a postcard-sized graphic showing the calving grounds of the Porcupine Caribou on the coastal plains of ANWR.
Dubbed by some as one of the last true wilderness areas, the 125-mile long coastal plain provides calving grounds for 130,000 porcupine caribou, the largest denning area for polar bears in the United States, and summer feeding grounds for more than 135 migratory bird species, according to the Alaska Wilderness League, an organization dedicated to establishing permanent protection for the refuge.
The ranch also provides calving grounds for hundreds of elk, and is home to whitetail and mule deer, antelope, moose and wolves.
Projects include erecting electric fencing to create secure calving grounds and sheep bedding grounds; purchasing livestock guardian dogs; and retiring grazing allotments in key habitat.
Periodically whales are injured when entangled in fishing nets or collide with boats, and commercial fishing can deplete food supplies in the summer when the whales must eat up to one ton of food each day to fuel a 4,800-mile round-trip migration to winter breeding and calving grounds.
For the southeast ports that overlap with right whale calving grounds (Jacksonville, Fernandina, and Brunswick) traffic lanes may be established and subject to speed restrictions.
The tundra serves as the calving grounds for caribou and also provides nesting sites for many species of migratory birds.