calpains


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Related to calpains: Cathepsins

cal·pains

(kal'pānz),
Calcium-dependent thiol proteinases that are cytoplasmic mammalian enzymes. Calpains of different types react in varying degrees to concentrations of calcium ions.
[calcium + suffix -pain, protease, fr. papain]

calpains

A family of proteolytic enzymes with cysteine in the catalytic site (cysteine proteases). Calpains modulate cell function, some in specific tissues, some ubiquitously. They have been implicated in a range of diseases including cancer, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and cataracts.
References in periodicals archive ?
15) In addition, the calcium-activated protease calpain inactivates certain but not all forms of the NCX of the neuron, contributing to the failure to maintain baseline Ca2 + concentrations.
As such, finding and exploiting calpain inhibitors is an important area of research.
The expression of calcium signaling-related molecules showed significant increase in the frontal cortex of mice exposed to repeated blasts, including calpain 3 (1.
Goll DE, Tompson VF, Li H, Wei W and J Cong The calpain system.
This article focuses on three major proteolytic systems known to be affected by alcohol consumption--the lysosome, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and the calpains.
123, 124) Previous studies have shown that calpains play a harmful role in a variety of pathologic states.
And the injected calcium chloride activates the calpains without overtenderizing the meat.
OTC BB: CEPO), a development-stage biopharmaceutical company focusing on cell targeted therapeutic products for neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases, noted that the recent New England Journal of Medicine (June 9, 2005 issue) lead review article, "Mechanisms of Disease: Calpains and Disease" implicates calpain as a primary protease that, when up-regulated, initiates accelerated tissue breakdown in several neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases.
Peroxynitrite mediates calcium-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death via activation of calpains.
Differences among the treatments were expected for the studied characteristics because vitamin D is involved in calcium metabolism and the activation of calpains, calcium-dependent proteases that act in the process of meat tenderisation (Montgomery et al.
Humans, in contrast, have more than a dozen calpains.
A novel duel inhibitor of calpains and lipid peroxidation (BN82270) rescues the cochlea from sound trauma.