Lee recommends that (1) serum calcium levels should be examined and followed longitudinally more carefully, (2) low serum calcium levels may be considered a potential risk factor for SCA in the community, and (3) more research is necessary to determine whether patients in the lowest quartile of serum calcium would benefit from higher dietary calcium intake or calcium supplementation
The studies had different endpoints and included the effects of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation, the effects of calcium supplementation
, relationships between calcium intake levels and risks for CVD mortality, and relationships between calcium intake levels and risks for stroke.
But not all research is on board that calcium supplementation
is of concern.
Effects of a long-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation
on falls and parameters of muscle function in community-dwelling older individuals.
The panel acknowledged that the majority of older adults did not meet the recommended intake from dietary sources alone, and therefore would require calcium supplementation
It has been suggested that calcium supplementation
contributes to gastrointestinal (GI) side effects  including constipation ; calcium carbonate is specifically implicated .
The research also found that vitamin D and calcium supplementation
didn't affect future risks, even among individuals with a history of cardiovascular disease.
found that dairy foods lead to fat loss, but not weight loss.
A reduction in 90 day mortality was also observed in association with calcium supplementation
This is a key consideration since the effectiveness of calcium supplementation
is reported in women with a pre-pregnancy deficit, so the recovery of calcium reservoirs prevents the development of preeclampsia (7).
Due to the unknown effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation
(VDCS) on the risk of developing hypercalciuria and subsequent de novo stone formation, we examined the impact of maintenance doses of vitamin D (VD) and calcium on urinary calcium excretion and de novo stone development in VDI patients with a history of urolithiasis.
Prior observational studies suggested that low levels of vitamin D in humans may increase risk of colorectal cancer, but in the more rigorous setting of a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that vitamin D and calcium supplementation
did not reduce the risk of colorectal adenomas, which are cancer precursors.