calcineurin


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cal·ci·neu·rin

(kal'sē-nyūr'in),
A calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase involved in T-cell signaling transcription; the target of cyclosporine immunosuppression; the reaction cascade in which it resides is referred to as the calcineurin pathway.
[calcium + G. neuron, nerve, + -in]

calcineurin

An enzyme which binds Ca2+ and calmodulin, inhibiting calmodulin activity. Calcineurin alters proteins by removing phosphate groups, shortening duration of NMDA channel opening, resulting in synaptic desensitisation of NMDA receptors. Calcineurin activates T cells via transcription factor NFATc (Nuclear Factor of Activated T cell, cytoplasmic) by dephosphorylation. Activated NFATc is translocated into the nucleus, where it upregulates IL-2 expression, and, by extension, the T cell response. Calcineurin is most concentrated in the CNS, and is inhibited by immunophilin ligand, tacrolimus and cyclosporin, both immunosuppressants. Because rejection can be mediated by calcineurin, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, pimecrolimus and tacrolimus) are used to prevent or manage rejection.

cal·ci·neu·rin

(kal'sē-nūr'in)
A calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase involved in T-cell signaling transcription; the reaction cascade in which it resides is referred to as the calcineurin pathway.
[calcium + G. neuron, nerve, + -in]
References in periodicals archive ?
12],[13] It has been demonstrated that T cell activation is initiated by an increase in the cytoplasmic level of calcium, which activates calcineurin through the binding of a regulatory subunit and activation of calmodulin binding.
Cyclosporine is a member of the class of drugs called calcineurin inhibitors (Sandimmun and Neoral are the commercial formulations of the drug), and the other commonly used drug in this class is tacrolimus (Prograft or Advagraft).
Although a wide range of systemic therapies are available, topical and intralesional treatment with such agents as potent steroids and calcineurin inhibitors can also help with cutaneous manifestations of GVHD in some instances, Kathryn Martires, MD, said at the American Academy of Dermatology summer meeting.
Eligible HCT-TMA patients are required to be adults with post-transplant TMA persisting at least two weeks following calcineurin inhibitor modification.
Calcineurin inhibitors are a mainstay in the treatment for DES, and the goal of this program is to develop a best-in-class treatment option.
From what I've seen this may be a nonburning alternative to calcineurin inhibitors.
The investigational drug is an immunosuppressant, with a synergistic and dual mechanism of action that inhibits calcineurin and therefore blocks IL-2 expression and T-cell mediated immune responses.
New topical medications, improved strategies for the use of topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors, and judicious use of nonpharmacologic regimens--including bathing, bleach baths, and early use of emollients--have led to better disease management and improved quality of life for patients and their families.
Keywords Atopic dermatitis; bathing; bleach baths; calcineurin inhibitors, topical; corticosteroids, topical; eczema
All patients received initial immunosuppres-sive therapy with prednisolone (P), antimetabolites (mycophenolatemofetil-(MMF), azathioprine-(AZA)) combined with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI; cyclosporin A-CyA/, tacrolimus-Tac), interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (IL-2ra) or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (sirolimus(SRL)/ everolimus (EVL)).
There are usually four classes of maintenance drugs: calcineurin inhibitors: tacrolimus and cyclosporine, antiproliferative agents: mycophenolate mofetil, mycophenolate sodium and azathioprine, mTOR inhibitor: sirolimus, and steroids: prednisone.
The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) [6] tacrolimus (TAC) and cyclosporine A (CsA) are effective immunosuppressive agents for renal transplantation but require careful management to avoid toxicity.