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Related to calcaneum: calcaneal spur


, gen. and pl.


(kal-kā'nē-ŭs, -kā'nē-ī),
1. The largest of the tarsal bones; it forms the heel and articulates with the cuboid anteriorly and the talus superiorly. Synonym(s): calcaneal bone, calcaneum, heel bone, os calcis
2. Synonym(s): talipes calcaneus
[L. the heel (another form of calcaneum)]

calcaneum, calcaneus

Etymology: L, calcaneum, heel
the heel bone. The largest of the tarsal bones, it articulates proximally with the talus and distally with the cuboid. Also called the os calcis. calcaneal, calcanean, adj.
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, pl. calcanei (kal-kā'nē-ŭs, -ē-ī)
1. [TA] The largest of the tarsal bones; it forms the heel and articulates with the cuboid anteriorly and the talus above.
Synonym(s): calcaneum, heel bone.
2. Synonym(s): talipes calcaneus.
[L. the heel (another form of calcaneum)]


; calcaneum; heel bone; os calcis largest bone in the rearfoot, forming the heel, articulating at its superior surface with inferior aspect of the talus, and anteriorly with the posterior aspect of cuboid; plantar aspect gives origin to plantar fascia; middle one-third of posterior facet receives insertion of the deep fibres of tendo Achilles; has two centres of ossification - the primary centre within the body of calcaneum, and secondary centre towards posterior aspect of the calcaneum - that unite at approximately 12 years of age (see Table 1)
Table 1: Ossification and epiphyses fusion dates
BonePrimary centreSecondary centreEpiphyseal fusion
Tibia (diaphysis)7th week
Tibia (upper epiphysis)At birth20th year
Tibia (lower epiphyses)2nd year18th year
Fibula (diaphysis)8th week
Fibula (upper epiphysis)4th year25th year
Fibula (lower epiphysis)2nd year20th year
Calcaneum (body)6th month
Calcaneal epiphysis6th-10th month12th-15th years
Talus7th month
CuboidAt birth
Lateral cuneiform1st year
Medial cuneiform3rd year
Intermediate cuneiform4th year
Navicular4th year
First metatarsal shaft8th-9th week
First metatarsal base3rd year17th-20th year
Lesser metatarsal shafts8th-9th week
Proximal phalanges; shafts12th-14th week
Proximal phalanges; bases3rd-6th years17th-18th years
Intermediate phalanges; shafts4th-9th month
Intermediate phalanges, bases; Distal phalanx hallux3rd-6th year17th-18th year
Distal phalanx; shafts8th week
Distal phalanx, bases6th year17th-18th year


see calcaneus.

calcaneus, calcaneum

the irregular quadrangular bone at the back of the tarsus. One of the two tarsal bones in the proximal row of bones of the hock joint and, because of its calcaneal tuber and the muscles attached to it, acts as a lever to extend the hock joint. Called also heel bone, os calcis, and fibular tarsal bone. See also Table 10.
References in periodicals archive ?
In several instances bones were found in anatomical association: two instances of thoracic vertebrae and two instances of lumbar vertebrae (Figures 3 and 4d); two instances of groups of carpals; four instances of groups of tarsals; at least one instance each of a calcaneum and astragalus, one of a femur head and pelvis acetabulum, and one of a first and second phalanx.
In radiology, the measurement of 'Bohler's angle' on a foot X-ray can help detect fractures of the calcaneum.
Peripheral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA) is used to measure bone mass in the radius (non-weightbearing) and calcaneum (trabecular site) with low precision errors, low radiation dose and short data acquisition time.
Broadband ultrasound attenuation of the calcaneum was examined for all women to assess their bone mineral density.