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In several instances bones were found in anatomical association: two instances of thoracic vertebrae and two instances of lumbar vertebrae (Figures 3 and 4d); two instances of groups of carpals; four instances of groups of tarsals; at least one instance each of a calcaneum and astragalus, one of a femur head and pelvis acetabulum, and one of a first and second phalanx.
In radiology, the measurement of 'Bohler's angle' on a foot X-ray can help detect fractures of the calcaneum.
Peripheral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA) is used to measure bone mass in the radius (non-weightbearing) and calcaneum (trabecular site) with low precision errors, low radiation dose and short data acquisition time.
Broadband ultrasound attenuation of the calcaneum was examined for all women to assess their bone mineral density.