Forces that can influence talocalcaneal joint are calcaneofibular
ligament, the superior peroneal retinaculum (calcaneal fibular retinaculum), the peroneal tendon sheaths, and the posterior talocalcaneal ligament.
One left calcaneus displayed a minimum of five axial cuts across the superior aspect of the lateral surface of the body that is likely to have cut through the distal attachment of the calcaneofibular
ligament, and there were also two slightly oblique cuts running across the medial surface which would have involved the long tendon of the flexor hallucis longus.
There was pain on palpation on both sides of the Achilles tendon as well as over the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular
The lateral ligaments of the ankle comprise the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), the calcaneofibular
ligament (CFL), and the posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL).
There are several causes for pain in the lateral aspect of the foot, including dislocation or subluxation of the peroneal tendon, injury, to the talofibular ligament or calcaneofibular
ligament, or fractures in the fifth metatarsal, anterior process of the calcaneus, or cuboid .
MRI showed complete avulsion injury of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and the calcaneofibular
ligament (CFL) and partial tears of the posterior talofibular ligament, the anterior tibiofibular ligament, and tearing of the interosseous membrane.
The anterior drawer test should be performed in plantar flexion and dorsiflexion to evaluate the competency of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular
ligament (CFL) respectively, along with inversion and eversion stress testing.
2,3] This abrupt change in kinesiology of the talocrural joint sometimes exceeds the elastic property of the static restraints of the anterior and posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular
The same procedure was repeated on the calcaneofibular
ligament and posterior talofibular ligament.
Due to the parallel run to the calcaneofibular
ligament the retinaculum operates as a stabilizer to the ankle joint, especially while inversion of the foot.
Most ankle sprains tend to involve a plantar flexion and supination movement, potentially damaging the anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular
, and/or the posterior talofibular ligaments.
Results of rerouting the tendons under the calcaneofibular