bystander T-cell activation

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bystander T-cell activation

An immune phenomenon in which T cells are activated in absence of specific T-cell receptor stimulation, which allows T cells to bypass certain immune regulatory checkpoints (e.g., central or thymic tolerance and peripheral tolerance mechanisms) acting after naive T cells have encountered their cognate antigen (e.g., anergy induction, apoptosis and effects of Treg cells). While the phenomenon has minimal impact on healthy individuals, it could have a devastating impact in the context of HIV-related or infection- triggered autoimmune disease.
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Below, the dad lies on the ground before a bystander helps him