Following the Haff disease cluster in Louisiana associated with eating boiled crayfish, it was suggested that buffalo fish and crayfish consumed the roots of water hemlock (Cicuta maculata) growing in marshy areas and along shorelines.
It is possible that in some instances in Louisiana and China, crayfish will feed on dying or dead toxic buffalo fish as both species are commercially harvested in the same freshwater environments.
In conclusion, Haff disease may follow the consumption of buffalo fish most commonly, but also Atlantic salmon and crayfish.
Patient 6 On August 8, an 87-year-old U S -born man vomited 30 minutes after eating one third of a fried buffalo fish.
The origin of the buffalo fish eaten by patients 1, 2, 3, and 6 was traced to the same wholesaler in Louisiana who receives fish from approximately 25 fishermen who fish rivers in Louisiana.
The first reported case of Haff disease in the United States occurred in Texas in 1984 (M Tormey, Los Angeles Department of Health Services, personal communication, 1997), five additional cases were reported in California during 1984-1986 All U S cases have been associated with eating buffalo fish.