brown fat

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fat

 [fat]
1. the adipose tissue of the body.
2. a triglyceride (or triacylglycerol) that is an ester of fatty acids and glycerol. Each fat molecule contains one glycerol residue connected by ester linkages to three fatty acid residues, which may be the same or different. The fatty acids may have no double bonds in the carbon chain (saturated fatty acids), one double bond (monounsaturated), or two or more double bonds (polyunsaturated). Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the body but must be obtained from the diet or from intravenous infusion of lipids.
Saturated and Unsaturated Fats. All of the common unsaturated fatty acids are liquid (oils) at room temperature. Through the process of hydrogenation, hydrogen can be incorporated into certain unsaturated fatty acids so that they are converted into solid fats for cooking purposes. Margarine is an example of the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids into a solid substance.
brown fat a thermogenic type of adipose tissue containing a dark pigment, and arising during embryonic life in certain specific areas in many mammals, including humans (see illustration); it is prominent in the newborn. Called also brown adipose tissue.
Sites of brown fat in the neonate. From McKinney et al., 2000.
neutral fat fat (def. 2).
polyunsaturated fat a fat containing polyunsaturated fatty acids; see also fat.
saturated fat a fat containing saturated fatty acids; see also fat.
unsaturated fat a fat containing unsaturated fatty acids; see also fat.

brown fat

brown thermogenic tissue composed of cells containing numerous fat droplets and rich in heme-containing cytochromes and mitochondria; lobular masses are found in the interscapular and mediastinal regions, among other locations; although found most commonly in certain hibernating animals, also occurs in pigs, rodents, and human neonates.

brown fat

n.
One of two types of fatty tissue in mammals, especially in newborn infants and hibernating animals, that is composed of dark-colored cells containing numerous mitochondria and lipids, which are converted into body heat.

brown fat

Etymology: ME, broun + AS, faett, filled
a type of fat present in newborns and rarely found in adults. Brown fat is a unique source of heat energy for the infant because it has greater thermogenic activity than ordinary fat. Brown fat deposits occur around the kidneys, neck, and upper chest.
A special form of fat that generates heat by nonshivering thermogenesis, so designated as it is rich in mitochondria, which imparts a brown hue. Brown fat is rich in sympathetic nerve endings and vessels, its metabolic activity and development is regulated by norepinephrine, and it is normally located in the axillary, subscapular, and interscapular regions, around the large thoracoabdominal vessels, heart, kidneys, and adrenal glands; brown fat is increased in Chagas’ disease, CHF, Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, malignancy, pheochromocytoma, SIDS, and in malnutrition

brown fat

Brown adipose tissue A special form of fat that generates heat by nonshivering thermogenesis, so designated as it is rich in mitochondria, which imparts a pardous hue; BF is rich in sympathetic nerve endings and vessels and its metabolic activity and development is regulated by norepinephrine, and it is normally located in the axillary, subscapular, and interscapular regions, around the large thoracoabdominal vessels, heart, kidneys, and adrenal glands; BF is ↑ in Chagas' disease, CHF, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, malignancy, pheochromocytoma, SIDS, and in malnutrition

brown fat

(brown fat)
Adipose tissue located near major vessels that occurs primarily in the full-term newborn, aiding in temperature regulation until shivering is established; it turns white as the infant ages.
Synonym(s): brown adipose tissue, brown adipose, hibernating gland, interscapular gland, interscapular hibernoma, multilocular adipose tissue, multilocular fat.

brown fat

A kind of animal body fat more readily available for rapid conversion to heat than is normal yellow fat. It is believed that hibernating animals use their brown fat in the recovery from the winter state. Small human babies have deposits of brown fat around the spine.

brown fat

a special fat layer found between the neck and shoulders of some mammals, e.g. bats and squirrels, whose function is to enable the production of large amounts of heat, particularly after HIBERNATION. The fat is heavily vascularized (see VASCULAR) and has many mitochondria (see MITOCHONDRION), the latter giving it its brown colour due to the presence of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. Heat is released by very rapid fat metabolism (rather than the more normal fatty acid metabolism) and is rapidly transported away via the large vascular system.

brown fat

see brown adipose tissue.
References in periodicals archive ?
We have always believed that there has been a link between the regulation of thermogenesis (heat production) and weight modulation in people, but could not identify the molecular mechanisms involved because there are very small amounts of UCP and brown adipose tissue present in humans," said Dr.
2) p107 is strictly expressed in the stem cell compartment of white adipose tissue and completely absent in brown adipose tissue.
During my early career, I discovered a circuit linking the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) to brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducing thermogenic beige (browning) white adipose tissue (WAT), regulating EE.
This is not the usual fat that you have heard of, brown adipose tissue is metabolically active and an experiment on mice revealed that it takes sugar out of the blood stream to burn calories to generate heat.
2001), consistent with the lack of functional brown adipose tissue in postnatal lambs (Smith et al.
Researchers from Warwick Medical School and University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust used a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based method to identify and confirm the presence of brown adipose tissue in a living adult.
Chief Scientist and Vice President of Research and Development, Francisco Silva, presented the Company's research on "Human Metabolically Active Brown Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells.
The distribution of brown adipose tissue in the human.
Nicotine withdrawal increases body weight, neuropeptide V and Agouti-related protein expression in the hypothalamus and decreases uncoupling protein-3 expression in the brown adipose tissue in high-fat fed mice.
Brown adipose tissue produces lots of heat by burning calories so, unlike white fat which clings to our hips and expands our ageing waistlines, brown fat keeps the weight off.
Brown adipose uptake is common in children, and knowing its distribution is critical for image interpretation (Figure 2).
Another 16 articles bring readers up to date on such matters as the implication of brown adipose tissue for human, cytochrome P450s in the regulation of cellular retinoic acid metabolism, the impact of common gene variants on how biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk respond to increased fish oil fatty acids intake, how many people are malnourished, and energy intake and response to infection with influenza.