tubes were collected from mass cultures, as previously described, and assigned haphazardly to the various treatments.
cells depth: Brood
combs were obtained from 20 different colonies from which the average depth of worker brood
cells was determined.
areas and number of frame trait belonging to three genotype groups were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared using the Duncan multiple comparison test.
The evaluation of food and brood
areas was performed according to Al-Tikrity, Hillmann, Benton and Clarke (1971) with modifications.
One pair only had EPY in the nonsupplemented brood
, and the remaining four pairs only had EPY in the supplemented broods
A) Mean brood
production rating of test colonies with brood
: 4 = excellent, substantially more brood
than workers; 3 = good, brood
about equal to workers; 2 = poor, brood
substantially less than workers; 1 = bad, only a little brood
visible; and 0 = no brood
In the absence of contrary evidence, it was assumed that one egg was laid per day, that clutch size was seven (mean clutch or brood
size at Iqaluit = 7.
Overall grouse breeding success (young:adult) was negatively related to the controlled predator abundance index, with clutch losses (represented by proportion of hens with broods
) and adult survival showing stronger relationships than chick survival (represented by mean brood
size; see Table 2B).
Cicada researchers are using observations from citizen scientists, along with automated devices equipped with GPS, to make more accurate records of Brood
II's emergence than any cicada invasion before.
Most are on a 17-year cycle, though three reproduce every 13 years and the cycles are staggered, meaning that at least one of the broods
hatches each year.
XIX, a 13-year brood
of periodical cicadas, has the largest distribution of the periodical cicada broods
, being reported from Maryland south to Georgia, westward through Arkansas and easternmost Oklahoma, and north into southern Iowa.
The term "hygienic behavior" was originally first mentioned by Rothenbuhler (1964) and means the ability of worker bees to identify the dead brood
and remove it off the cell, thus reduce the infestation (Peng et al.