bronchospasm


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spasm

 [spazm]
1. a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles.
2. a sudden, transitory constriction of a passage, canal, or orifice; spasms usually occur when the nerves supplying muscles are irritated, and are often accompanied by pain. A vasospasm is a rare type that occurs in a blood vessel. Spasms vary from mild twitches to severe convulsions and may be the symptoms of any number of disorders. Usually, they will cease when the cause is corrected, but sometimes the only treatment is to suppress the symptoms, as in epilepsy.

Clonic Spasms. These are spasms in which contraction and relaxation of the muscle alternate; this is the most common type of spasm and usually is not severe. A typical clonic spasm is the hiccup. Hiccups usually occur when the diaphragm is irritated, as by indigestion, although occasionally they may result from a serious condition such as a brain tumor; they generally disappear by themselves or after a drink of water.



Spasms may be repetitive twitching motions, some of which are called tics. Tics often accompany other types of spasm, as in such diseases as cerebral palsy and sydenham's chorea, and may also be seen in neuralgia. In tic douloureux the nerves of the face are involved.

Habit spasms are a type of repetitive twitching movements that seem purposeless or without a cause; they include twitching of the face, blinking of the eyes, and grimacing. The movements are rapid and always repeated in the same way, unlike the spasms associated with chorea. The motions are carried out automatically in response to a stimulus that once may have existed but no longer does.

In a convulsive spasm the entire body is jerked by sudden violent movements that may involve almost all the muscles. These spasms may last from a fraction of a second to several seconds, or even minutes. (See also convulsion.)
Tonic Spasms. If the contraction of a spasm is sustained or continuing, it is called a tonic or tetanic spasm. These are generally severe because they are caused by diseases that affect the central nervous system or brain, such as tetanus, rabies, and cerebral palsy. Severe tonic spasms can be fatal if not treated promptly; continued spasms can bring on exhaustion or asphyxiation. The treatment varies with the cause; if the disease is caused by a microorganism in the system, as in tetanus, antiserum must be administered immediately. Antibiotics are also used to help curb infection. In many cases tranquilizers, sedatives, and narcotics must be administered to help ease the spasms.
bronchial spasm spasmodic contraction of the muscular coat of the smaller divisions of the bronchi, as occurs in asthma; called also bronchospasm.
clonic spasm a spasm consisting of clonic contractions; see also clonus.
infantile s's (infantile massive s's) (jackknife s's) a syndrome of severe myoclonus appearing in the first 18 months of life, and associated with general cerebral deterioration; it is marked by severe flexion spasms of the head, neck, and trunk and extension of the arms and legs. Called also jackknife seizures.
nodding spasm clonic spasm of the sternomastoid muscles, causing a nodding motion of the head.
saltatory spasm clonic spasms of the muscles of the lower limbs, producing a peculiar jumping or springing action.
tetanic spasm (tonic spasm) physiological tetanus.

bron·cho·spasm

(brong'kō-spazm),
Contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing narrowing of the lumen. Compare: bronchoconstriction.

bronchospasm

/bron·cho·spasm/ (brong´ko-spazm) bronchial spasm; spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi, as in asthma.

bronchospasm

(brŏng′kō-spăz′əm)
n.
A contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing them to constrict.

bronchospasm

[-spaz′əm]
an excessive and prolonged contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi and bronchioles, resulting in an acute narrowing and obstruction of the respiratory airway. The contractions may be localized or general and may be caused by irritation or injury to the respiratory mucosa, infections, or allergies. A cough with generalized wheezing usually indicates the condition. Bronchospasm is a chief characteristic of asthma. Treatment includes the use of active bronchodilators, catecholamines, corticosteroids, or methylxanthines and preventive drugs such as cromolyn sodium. Also called bronchial spasm, bronchiospasm. See also asthma, bronchitis.

bronchospasm

Spasmodic contraction of bronchial smooth muscle, which occurs in response to the release of histamine and bradykinins.

Aetiology
Asthma, chronic bronchitis, anaphylaxis (peanuts, shellfish and other allergenic foods), bee stings, pilocarpine, beta blockers, cold exposure, general anaesthesia.

bronchospasm

Chest medicine Spasmodic contraction of bronchial smooth muscle, as in asthma. See Asthma, Exercise-induced bronchospasm.

bron·cho·spasm

(brong'kō-spazm)
Contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing narrowing of the lumen and obstructing breathing.

bronchospasm

Tight contraction of the smooth circularly-placed muscles in the walls of the air tubes (bronchi) in the lungs with resulting severe narrowing. Bronchospasm is the main feature of, and cause of the symptoms in, asthma, and is often the result of an allergy.

bronchospasm

sudden constriction of the bronchial tubes due to contraction of the involuntary smooth muscle in their walls. In sport, commonly the result of activity in those with asthma.

bronchospasm

airway smooth-muscle contraction and narrowing; characteristic of asthma and hypersensitivity reactions

bron·cho·spasm

(brong'kō-spazm)
Contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing narrowing of the lumen.

bronchospasm (brong´kōspaz´əm),

n a spasmodic contraction of the muscular coat of the bronchial tubes such as occurs in asthma.

bronchospasm

bronchial spasm; spasmodic contraction of the muscular coat of the smaller divisions of the bronchi, such as occurs in asthma.
References in periodicals archive ?
Albuterol is used for acute, preventative or maintenance therapy for bronchospasm in asthmatic patients.
Possible causes of bronchospasm following spinal anaesthesia are unclear.
4] dilution, and it confirmed that the bronchospasm was indeed a manifestation of anaphylaxis induced by vecuronium.
Concerns that bronchospasm in agitated patients could go unrecognized and could progress in patients who were not closely monitored after being successfully treated for agitation prompted the FDA to propose a REMS that would limit the drug's use to settings capable of providing advanced airway management, along with other requirements that were more stringent than the REMS plan proposed by Alexza.
However, in rare cases anaphylaxis can manifest as bronchospasm only.
After 15min in the chamber the guinea pigs were challenged with saline followed by histamine (Hist), sprayed every 5min at increasing concentrations (5-640 [micro]g/ml) for 1 min; changes in the respiratory pressure were recorded during 3 min, or until bronchospasm occurred.
Management of exerciseinduced bronchospasm in children: the role of leukotriene antagonists.
Key Words: paradoxical bronchospasm, albuterol, levalbuterol
To prevent and counteract reversible episodes of bronchospasm, beta-2 adrenergic inhalers directly dilate the bronchioles.
Both patients had bronchial infection and cough with bronchospasm and moderate respiratory insufficiency (oxygen saturation rate: 90.
In a series of 240 surgeries on 172 asthmatic patients given preoperative corticosteroids, postoperative bronchospasm occurred in 13 cases (5%), a retrospective study found.