Evaluation of the air bronchogram
sign on CT in solitary pulmonary lesions.
The patient was referred to our clinic with a prediagnosis of malignancy-metastasis when bilateral diffuse nodular lesions were found on chest x-ray (Picture 1) and multiple nodular lesions with various localizations and sizes were found diffusely in both lungs on high-resolution lung tomography with the largest one in the superior segment of the lower lobe in the right lung with a size of 14x11 mm and additionally consolidation areas including air bronchograms
were found in the anterobasal segments of the lower lobe in the right lung and posterobasal segments of the lower lobe in the left lung.
Airspace disease was reported when confluent densities containing air bronchograms
Bacterial pneumonia typically presents as lobar or segmental consolidation with air bronchograms
Further CT findings of SPE that have been described include air bronchograms
within the parenchymal nodules in 28% of cases (4), wedge-shaped subpleural densities (Hampton's humps) in 73% of cases (5), mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy in 27% of cases (1), and axillary lymphadenopathy in 80% of cases (5).
of Imaging Cause of death (CoD) cases findings 7 Opacification in Pneumonia/lung lung fields pathology/aspiration 7 Consolidated Lower respiratory tract lung fields infection/bronchopneumonia/sepsis 2 Air Pneumonia bronchograms
2 Obscured heart Congenital cardiac disease margins 1 Bilateral Pneumonia pleural effusions 1 Hyperinflation Bronchiolitis of lungs 1 Lymphadenopathy Disseminated tuberculosis 1 Infiltrates Pneumonia Table 2.
55) Lesional size, percentage of GGO, presence of alveolar collapse, coarse spiculation, air bronchograms
, and thickening around bronchovascular bundles have been suggested to correlate with varying prognostic factors, including lymph node metastases, vascular invasion, or even simply prognosis.
The mass tends to be flat or ovoid (rather than rounded) and may contain air bronchograms
or may cavitate.
A chest radiograph showed increased shadowing (Figure 1, panel B) and a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest showed a 6x3-cm solid mass in the upper left chest with visible air bronchograms
and minor volume loss, reported as "almost certainly solid neoplasm" (Figure 2).
Increasing density results in loss of cardiac and diaphragmatic margins first, then air bronchograms
developing and then filling in of these resulting in 'white out' (Fig.
In lobar atelectasis, the presence or absence of air bronchograms
is useful to determine the potential effectiveness of therapeutic bronchoscopy.
A chest radiograph showed increased markings in the right lower lobe medially with associated peribronchial thickening and some faint air bronchograms
consistent with an early bronchial pneumonia.