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breath sounds of a harsh or blowing quality, heard on auscultation of the chest, made by air moving in the large bronchi and barely, if at all, modified by the intervening lung; duration of the expiratory sound is as long as or longer than that of the inspiratory sound, and its pitch as high as or higher than that of the inspiratory sound; may be heard over a consolidated lung, above a pleural effusion due to an underlying compressed lung, and rarely over a pulmonary cavity; whispered pectoriloquy is another manifestation that usually can be elicited when bronchial breathing is present.
Synonym(s): bronchial breath sounds
A controlled method of breathing in which the diaphragm is used for inspiration and the abdominal muscles for expiration. This technique improves exertional dyspnea, esp. in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Synonym: diaphragmatic breathing
An abnormal breathing pattern marked by prolonged inspiration followed by an inspiratory pause. This is usually associated with brainstem injuries.
Any technique that improves respiration. Such breathing includes the provision of supplemental oxygen, bag-valve-mask ventilation, noninvasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation, and mouth-to-mouth ventilation.
Harsh breathing with prolonged wheezing heard throughout expiration.
An irregular, uncoordinated breathing pattern common in infants.
belly breathingAbdominal respiration.
Biot breathingSee: Biot breathing
bronchial breathingBronchial sounds.
Cheyne-Stokes breathingSee: Cheyne-Stokes respiration
continuous positive-pressure breathing
A method of mechanically assisted pulmonary inflation. A device administers air or oxygen to the lungs under a continuous pressure that is always greater than zero.Synonym: continuous positive-pressure ventilation
diaphragmatic breathingAbdominodiaphragmatic breathing.
A respiratory pattern in which the air in the mouth and pharynx is forced into the lungs by gulping and swallowing it. This may be observed in patients whose respiratory muscles are weak or paralyzed.
A technique of breathing in which the patient with inspiratory muscle weakness increases the volume of air breathed in by taking several gulps of air, closing the mouth, and forcing air into the lungs.
high-altitude periodic breathing
Brief episodes of central apnea that occur in hypoxemic environments, esp. in elevations that are 13,000 ft or more above sea level.
inspiratory resistive breathing
Inspiration with an added workload to increase the strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles.
intermittent positive-pressure breathingAbbreviation: IPPB
A mechanical method for assisting pulmonary ventilation with a device that administers air or oxygen for the inflation of the lungs under positive pressure. Exhalation is usually passive.Synonym: intermittent positive-pressure ventilation
Kussmaul breathingSee: Kussmaul, Adolph
Inhaling and exhaling through the oral cavity instead of the nose. It occurs in people who have abnormal facial bone structure, as well as in individuals with nasal or sinus congestion. It has been associated with and may cause developmental abnormalities of the facial structure, esp. elongation of the facial bones.
An irregular respiratory pattern marked by alternating periods of rapid and slow respirations and by apneic periods lasting 15 sec or less. It is a commonly observed breathing pattern in neonates and infants and in some individuals having sleep apnea.
An expiratory maneuver in which the patient exhales through puckered lips to slow expiratory flow and to create slight back pressure. This action may prevent premature closure of intrapulmonary airways, esp. in the patient with chronic obstructive lung disease.
Breathing in which the volume of inspired and expired air is diminished (e.g., 200 ml per breath in adults). It is common in elderly patients, patients with rib or pleural pain, or restrictive lung diseases.