toxicity and treatment in a white-winged wood duck (Cairina scutulata).
, a second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide also identified in this eagle, has been found in golden eagles (10) and could induce sublethal effects and immunosuppression.
Second-generation products, including brodifacoum
, bromadiolone, difenacoum and difethialone, are faster acting, typically causing death after a single feeding, Dr.
Second-generation products such as brodifacoum
, difethialone and bromadiolone are more toxic than first-generation products such as warfarin, diphacinone and chlorophacinone, and can kill a rodent after just one dose, and within 48 hours.
Requests to use stronger rodenticides such as Brodifacoum
and Flocoumafen had been denied by the Health and Safety Executive over fears it would also damage the environment and poison others and wildlife too.
They later came back positive for brodifacoum
, the poison compound found in many "second generation" anticoagulant rat poisons, which are designed to kill in one dose.
To combat the problem there are stronger poisons - such as brodifacoum
and flocoumafen - that can be used, but only in strictly-controlled conditions, under licence from the Health and Safety Executive.
Higher call rates of morepork, Ninox novaeseelandiae, at sites inside an area with ongoing brodifacoum
poisoning compared with matched non-managed sites.
Examples of pesticide active ingredients responsible for poisoning Organophosphates Methyl parathion Ethal parathion Malathion Diazinon Fenthion Dichlorvos Chlorpyrifos Trichlorfon Anticoagulants Brodifacoum
Difethialone Chlorofacinone Coumachlor Difenacoum Diphacinone Warfarin Pyrethroids Allethrin Bifenthrin Cypermeter Permethrin Deltamethrin Organochlorines Lindane (lice shampoo) Carbamates Aldicarb Carbofuran Oxamyl Methomyl Formetanate Methiocarb Aminocarb Mecarbam Bendiocarb Propoxur Herbicides Glysophate Atrazine Nicosulfuran Fenoxaprop Alachlor Pendimethalin Halosulfuran-methyl Paraquat Triclopyr Clopyralid Picloram N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET- mosquito repellent)
anticoagulant rodenticide (b) placed around most buildings reduced mice numbers but could not eliminate the problem because there was an unremitting supply of new rodents from surrounding farms.
The chemicals of concern - brodifacoum
, bromadiolone, diphacinone and difethialone - have been in use for more than two decades.
can bioaccumulate and has a long half-life, so do we really want it in our waters?