broad-spectrum antibiotic


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antibiotic

 [an″te-, an″ti-bi-ot´ik]
1. destructive of life.
2. a chemical substance produced by a microorganism that has the capacity, in dilute solutions, to kill other microorganisms or inhibit their growth. Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases. See also antimicrobial agent.
antineoplastic a's (antitumor a's) a class of antineoplastic agents that apparently affect the function or the synthesis, or both, of nucleic acids and thus are cell cycle nonspecific. See also antineoplastic therapy.
broad-spectrum antibiotic one that is effective against a wide range of bacteria, both gram-positive and gram-negative.
β-lactam antibiotic any of a group of antibiotics, including the cephalosporins and the penicillins, whose chemical structure contains a β-lactam ring.

broad-spec·trum an·ti·bi·ot·ic

an antibiotic having a wide range of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.

broad-spectrum antibiotic

an antibiotic that is effective against a wide range of infectious microorganisms.

broad-spectrum antibiotic

A therapeutic array used to treat bacterial infections—e.g., acute otitis media.
 
Examples
Azithromycin, clarithromycin, cefixime, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefprozil, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime axetil, loracarbef.
 
Cons
Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics facilitates development of antibiotic-resistant infections and multi-drug resistance.

broad-spec·trum an·ti·bi·ot·ic

(brawd-spek'trŭm an'tē-bī-ot'ik)
An antibiotic having a wide range of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.

antibiotic

1. destructive of life.
2. a chemical substance produced by a microorganism that has the capacity, in dilute solutions, to kill (biocidal activity) or inhibit the growth (biostatic activity) of other microorganisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases. See also antimicrobial.
3. used as feed additives to animals as growth promotants.

anthracycline a's
a group of antibiotics which have a tetracycline ring structure substituted with the sugar daunosamine. Includes the antineoplastic drugs doxorubicin and daunorubicin.
antineoplastic antibiotic
bactericidal antibiotic
one that kills bacteria.
bacteriostatic antibiotic
one that suppresses the growth of bacteria.
broad-spectrum antibiotic
one that is effective against a wide range of bacteria.
antibiotic detection
on-farm and prepackaged laboratory tests available for testing farm products and animal tissues and fluids for antibiotic residues.
antibiotic drugs
the range includes the following groups: penicillin, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, macrolide, nitrofuran, cephalosporins, and a miscellaneous group including bacitracin, tyrothricin, polymyxin, colistin.
antibiotic feed additives
see feed additives.
first generation antibiotic
one produced as a natural product, e.g. penicillin G. See second generation antibiotic (below).
antibiotic food preservation
is a satisfactory technique but very strictly controlled because of the problem of residues in the food. Used mostly for the preservation of fish.
antibiotic-induced diarrhea
see pseudomembranous colitis, acute undifferentiated diarrhea of the horse.
antibiotic residue in food
in human food of animal origin is a seriously regarded pollution in public health surveillance. The residues may arise from systemic administration, or even after absorption from a local site such as the uterus, but the most serious contamination arises from milk from quarters that have been treated for mastitis. It is essential for the safety of the human population, the financial well-being of the farmer and the professional reputation of the veterinarian that antibacterial withdrawal times are observed.
antibiotic resistance
see antimicrobial resistance.
second generation antibiotic
produced by manipulation of the molecular structure of a first generation antibiotic (see above) so that the metabolism and pharmacodynamics of the original compound are significantly altered.
antibiotic sensitivity test
see antimicrobial sensitivity test.
antibiotic therapy
antibiotics vary in their absorption from the alimentary tract, requiring some, e.g. streptomycin, to be given parenterally for systemic effect, freedom from toxicity, the range of bacteria against which they are effective, their capacity to stimulate resistance and whether they are bacteriostatic or bactericidal in their effects. Selection of the most suitable antibiotic to suit a particular circumstance may be guided by an antimicrobial sensitivity test, knowledge of the infection present and the price of the drug. In many instances, because of lack of knowledge of the infection present it is necessary to choose an agent with a broad antibacterial spectrum.
antibiotic withdrawal, antibiotic withholding
see antibacterial withdrawal time.
References in periodicals archive ?
Trends in Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Prescribing for Children with Acute Otitis Media in the United States, 19982004.
Prescribing rates for second-line, broad-spectrum antibiotics among outpatients have increased, contributing to a growing problem of antibiotic-resistant infections (10-14).
Overall, broad-spectrum antibiotics were prescribed for more than half of patients who were prescribed an antibiotic for each type of acute upper respiratory tract infection-except pharyngitis, laryngitis, and tracheitis.
All patients had been admitted to the ICU and treated with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics (cefuroxime, ampicillin/sulbactam, ampicillin/chloramphenicol, or clindamycin), humidification, and elevation of the head of the bed; 19 of the 29 patients (66%; all adults) had also been infused with an intravenous corticosteroid.
AzaSite contains the drug azithromycin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic formulated with DuraSite, InSite Vision's patented drug-delivery vehicle, which offers the benefit of a low-dosing regimen, attractive to both the eye-care patient and physician.
Proceeds of the financing will be used primarily to advance Paratek's lead programs to develop broad-spectrum antibiotics, including two antibiotics for the treatment of resistant bacterial infections such as those caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Earlier exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics was also significantly associated; however, no similar association with the narrow-spectrum antibiotics was observed.
Slower diagnostic methods, like cultures, have led to the overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics and antimicrobials and an emergence of new resistant superbugs," said Jean-Louis Vincent, M.
The bacterium is often resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotics used in conventional treatments.
Among the drugs being taken more often, the researchers pointed out, are new broad-spectrum antibiotics that are more expensive and more likely to lead to bacterial resistance than older versions.
Treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics can cure H.
Yet penicillin skin testing, like that done in the study, is "feasible" in the emergency department setting and could help decrease the overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics in the emergency department.