Red tide organisms cause problems for fish because they emit chemicals called brevetoxins
which interfere with the functioning of gills.
, unique activators of voltage-sensitive sodium channels bind to specific sites in rat brain synaptosomes.
Airway responses to aerosolved brevetoxins
in an animal model of asthma.
Karenia brevis red tides, brevetoxins
in the food web, and impacts on natural resources: Decadal advancements.
Phycotoxins are covered in alphabetical order and include: azaspiracids, brevetoxins
, domoic acid, pectenotoxins, and yessotoxins.
Fleming and a team of researchers from seven academic, environmental, and government institutions evaluated the exposures and effects of aerosolized Florida red tide brevetoxins
in 97 subjects with asthma.
during a Gymnodinium breve red tide: comparison of sodium channel specific cytotoxicity assay and mouse bioassay for determination of neurotoxic shellfish toxins in shell-fish extracts.
Scientists are working to harness these novel compounds as antidotes to brevetoxins
or even as treatments for unrelated lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis.
2005) Airway Responses to Aerosolized Brevetoxins
in an Animal Model of Asthma.
Finfish concentrate shellfish concentrate, marine mammal deaths Neurologie/neurotoxic Caribbean, [greater than or equal shellfish poisoning Gulf of Mexico to] brevetoxins
, shellfish concentrate most common in Gulf States; marine mammal deaths Amnesic shellfish Canada/NE US, Domnoic acid poisoning Wash, Ore, Calif Shellfish concentrate (especially mussels); finfish concentrate Diarrheal shellfish Europe, Canada,Japan, New Okadaic acid poisoning Zealand, South America; organisms seen in US waters Condition Organism(s) Ciguatera fish Cambierdiscus toxicus poisoning and others Paralytic shellfish Gonyaulax tamarensis, poisoning Alexandrium spp.
International collaborations with IMB to investigate human toxicity incidents include groups in Australia (new pectenotoxins), Ireland (azaspiracids, DSP), Japan (DSP, pectenotoxins), Portugal (ASP, DSP, pectenotoxins), Spain (DSP, PSP), Taiwan (DSP, PSP, microcystins), UK (ASP), USA (ASP), and New Zealand (gymnodimine, yessotoxin, brevetoxins
The chemical structure of YTX is closely related to other ladder-shaped polyethers like ciguatoxin (CTXs), maitotoxin, brevetoxins
(PbTXs), and some diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs).