bre·ve·tox·ins (BTX),

Structurally unique neurotoxins produced by the "red tide" dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis Davis (Gymnodinium breve Davis), a species of algae responsible for large fish kills and for mollusk and human food poisoning in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Florida coast. Unlike previously isolated dinoflagellate toxins, such as saxitoxin, which are water-soluble sodium channel blockers, the brevotoxins are lipid-soluble sodium channel activators.
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Red tide organisms cause problems for fish because they emit chemicals called brevetoxins which interfere with the functioning of gills.
Brevetoxins, unique activators of voltage-sensitive sodium channels bind to specific sites in rat brain synaptosomes.
Airway responses to aerosolved brevetoxins in an animal model of asthma.
Karenia brevis red tides, brevetoxins in the food web, and impacts on natural resources: Decadal advancements.
Phycotoxins are covered in alphabetical order and include: azaspiracids, brevetoxins, domoic acid, pectenotoxins, and yessotoxins.
Fleming and a team of researchers from seven academic, environmental, and government institutions evaluated the exposures and effects of aerosolized Florida red tide brevetoxins in 97 subjects with asthma.
Monitoring brevetoxins during a Gymnodinium breve red tide: comparison of sodium channel specific cytotoxicity assay and mouse bioassay for determination of neurotoxic shellfish toxins in shell-fish extracts.
Scientists are working to harness these novel compounds as antidotes to brevetoxins or even as treatments for unrelated lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis.
2005) Airway Responses to Aerosolized Brevetoxins in an Animal Model of Asthma.
Finfish concentrate shellfish concentrate, marine mammal deaths Neurologie/neurotoxic Caribbean, [greater than or equal shellfish poisoning Gulf of Mexico to] brevetoxins, shellfish concentrate most common in Gulf States; marine mammal deaths Amnesic shellfish Canada/NE US, Domnoic acid poisoning Wash, Ore, Calif Shellfish concentrate (especially mussels); finfish concentrate Diarrheal shellfish Europe, Canada,Japan, New Okadaic acid poisoning Zealand, South America; organisms seen in US waters Condition Organism(s) Ciguatera fish Cambierdiscus toxicus poisoning and others Paralytic shellfish Gonyaulax tamarensis, poisoning Alexandrium spp.
International collaborations with IMB to investigate human toxicity incidents include groups in Australia (new pectenotoxins), Ireland (azaspiracids, DSP), Japan (DSP, pectenotoxins), Portugal (ASP, DSP, pectenotoxins), Spain (DSP, PSP), Taiwan (DSP, PSP, microcystins), UK (ASP), USA (ASP), and New Zealand (gymnodimine, yessotoxin, brevetoxins, DSP).
The chemical structure of YTX is closely related to other ladder-shaped polyethers like ciguatoxin (CTXs), maitotoxin, brevetoxins (PbTXs), and some diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs).