branchial fistula


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Related to branchial fistula: Branchial cyst, branchial sinus, thyroglossal fistula

fistula

 [fis´tu-lah] (pl. fistulas, fis´tulae) (L.)
any abnormal tubelike passage within body tissue, usually between two internal organs or leading from an internal organ to the body surface. Some fistulas are created surgically for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes; others occur as result of injury or as congenital abnormalities. Among the many kinds of fistulas, the anal type (fistula in ano) is one of the most common. It generally develops as a result of a break or fissure in the wall of the anal canal or rectum, or an abscess there. Treatment is by surgery.

In women, difficult labor in childbirth may result in formation of a vesicovaginal fistula between the bladder and the vagina with resulting leakage of urine into the vagina. In a vesicointestinal fistula, there is leakage of urine from the bladder into the intestine. In a rectovaginal fistula, feces escape through the wall of the anal canal or rectum into the vagina. This condition, formerly a serious hazard of childbirth, is now rare; like other kinds of fistula, it can be corrected by surgery.

With the types of fistulas described here, typical symptoms are pain in the affected region and an abnormal discharge through the skin near the anus or through the vagina. Fistulas at different places of the body may be caused by tuberculosis, actinomycosis (a fungus infection), the presence of diverticula, or certain other serious diseases, and the fistula itself may be a site of infection and discomfort.
abdominal fistula one between a hollow abdominal organ and the surface of the abdomen.
anal fistula (fistula in a´no) one opening on the cutaneous surface near the anus, which may or may not communicate with the rectum.
arteriovenous fistula one between an artery and a vein, either pathologic (such as a varicose aneurysm) or surgically created to ensure an access site for hemodialysis. The site must be allowed 6 to 8 weeks to mature before it can be cannulated. Such a fistula may be the anastomosis of a natural artery and vein, a bovine graft, or a synthetic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft. The bovine graft is taken from the bovine carotid artery and anastomosed to the vein and artery of the patient. In a PTFE graft, fibers are woven into a mesh called Gore-Tex and made into a sleeve and flange; this is available in a variety of sizes.

Precautions necessary to insure patient safety when caring for an individual with an arteriovenous fistula include frequent assessments for adequate circulation in the fistula and the distal extremity. A bruit or thrill can be heard over the access site. Blood pressure measurements, withdrawal of blood, injections, and administration of intravenous fluids should not be done on the extremity with such a fistula.
Internal arteriovenous fistulas.
blind fistula one open at one end only, opening on the skin (external blind fistula) or on an internal surface (internal blind fistula).
branchial fistula a persistent pharyngeal groove (branchial cleft).
Brescia-Cimino fistula an arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis access, connecting the cephalic vein and radial artery.
bronchopleural fistula one between a bronchus and the pleural cavity, causing an air leak into the pleural cavity; sometimes seen as a complication of empyema, fibrosis, or pneumonia.
cerebrospinal fluid fistula one between the subarachnoid space and a body cavity, such as from head trauma or bone erosion, with leakage of cerebrospinal fluid, usually in the form of rhinorrhea or otorrhea.
complete fistula one extending from the skin to an internal body cavity.
craniosinus fistula one between the cerebral space and a paranasal sinus, permitting escape of cerebrospinal fluid into the nose.
Eck's fistula an artificial communication made between the portal vein and the vena cava.
enterocutaneous fistula see enterocutaneous fistula.
enterovesical fistula one connecting some part of the intestine with the urinary bladder; called also vesicoenteric f.
fecal fistula one between the colon and the external surface of the body, discharging feces.
gastric fistula
1. one communicating between the stomach and some other body part.
2. a passage created artificially through the abdominal wall into the stomach.
horseshoe fistula one near the anus, having a semicircular tract with both openings on the skin.
incomplete fistula blind fistula.
perilymph fistula rupture of the round window with leakage of perilymph into the inner ear, so that changes in middle ear pressure directly affect the inner ear, causing sensorineural deafness as well as dizziness, vertigo, nausea, and vomiting. Head trauma and dramatic changes in atmospheric pressure are the most common causes. The usual treatment is restriction in activity (sometimes with complete bed rest), so that the fistula can heal. Surgical repair may be necessary, consisting of placement of a graft over the defect.
pilonidal fistula pilonidal sinus.
pulmonary arteriovenous fistula a congenital fistula between the pulmonary arterial and venous systems, allowing unoxygenated blood to enter the systemic circulation.
rectovaginal fistula one between the rectum and vagina.
rectovesical fistula one between the rectum and urinary bladder.
salivary fistula one between a salivary duct or gland and the cutaneous surface, or into the mouth through an abnormal pathway.
thoracic fistula one communicating with the thoracic cavity.
umbilical fistula one communicating with the intestine or urachus at the umbilicus.
urinary fistula any fistula communicating between the urinary tract and another organ or the surface of the body.
vesicoenteric fistula (vesicointestinal fistula) enterovesical fistula.
vesicovaginal fistula one from the bladder to the vagina.

pharyngeal fistula

a congenital fistula in the neck resulting from incomplete closure of a pharyngeal groove or cleft.
Synonym(s): branchial fistula

branchial fistula

a congenital abnormal passage from the pharynx to the external surface of the neck, resulting from the failure of a branchial cleft to close during fetal development. Also called cervical fistula.

branchial fistula

A small midline opening in the neck connecting to the pharynx and present at birth. This results from a minor developmental defect during fetal life. See also BRANCHIAL CYST.

fistula

pl. fistulae, fistulas; any abnormal, tubelike passage within body tissue, usually between two internal organs, or leading from an internal organ to the body surface. Some fistulae are created surgically, for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes; others occur as a result of injury or as congenital abnormalities. See also arteriovenous fistula.

blind fistula
one open at one end only, opening on the skin (external blind fistula) or on an internal surface (internal blind fistula).
branchial fistula
a persisting branchial cleft.
complete fistula
one extending from the skin to an internal body cavity.
craniosinus fistula
one between the cerebral space and one of the sinuses, permitting escape of cerebrospinal fluid into the nose.
crop fistula
the crop communicates with the skin on the neck of the bird.
enterocutaneous fistula
one in which there is communication between the intestinal tract and the skin. Some fistulae are created surgically, with gastrostomy, esophagostomy or colostomy. Others may result from surgical trauma, breakdown of an intestinal anastomosis, or erosions around a surgical drain or tube.
esophageal fistula
communication between the esophagus and some portion of the respiratory tract, e.g. trachea, bronchi or pulmonary tissue. May be congenital or acquired as a result of trauma or inflammatory lesions, particularly esophageal foreign bodies.
Enlarge picture
Esophageal fistula. By permission from Knottenbelt DC, Pascoe RR, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, Saunders, 2003
fecal fistula
a colonic fistula opening on the external surface of the body and discharging feces.
foreign body fistula
remnant of a foreign body impalation or a grass seed are the common causes. Fistula drains continuously.
gastric fistula
an abnormal passage communicating with the stomach; often applied to an artificially created opening, through the abdominal wall, into the stomach.
horseshoe fistula
a semicircular fistulous tract about the anus, with both openings on the skin.
incomplete fistula
blind fistula.
lateral cervical fistula
see branchial cyst.
oroantral fistula
between the oral cavity and a sinus. In dogs, usually involves the maxillary sinus and is caused by periodontal disease of the fourth premolars and first molars.
oronasal fistula
between the nasal and oral cavities. Occurs most commonly in dogs with advanced periodontal disease of the maxillary canine tooth, but can result from disease of canines and premolars. It may also occur after tooth extraction, particularly in dogs, leading to the passage of food into the nasal cavity and a secondary chronic rhinitis and nasal discharge.
ruminal fistula
created surgically in left upper flank. May occur accidentally due to persistence of trocar puncture for treatment of bloat.
salivary fistula
usually discharges saliva on to the side of the face but may discharge into the mouth. Usually due to laceration of the duct by trauma.
umbilical fistula
an abnormal passage communicating with the gut or the urachus at the umbilicus.
urachal fistula
persistence of the urachal canal with communication between the urinary bladder and umbilicus. See also persistent urachus.
References in periodicals archive ?
1) Recurrence rates for branchial fistulas after surgical intervention have been reported to range from 4 to 10%.
In rare cases, a branchial sinus is also found to have an internal opening, thus forming a true branchial fistula.
A fourth branchial fistula has a cutaneous orifice that is identical to the orifices of the second and third branchial fistulae.
Most authors accept the 1981 analysis of Liston, who described the route of a fourth branchial fistula.