branchial clefts

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bran·chi·al clefts

a bilateral series of slitlike openings into the pharynx through which water is drawn by aquatic animals; in the walls of the clefts are the vascular gill filaments that take up oxygen from the water passing through the clefts; sometimes wrongly applied to the pharyngeal grooves of mammalian embryos, which are imperforate, rudimentary homologues of complete gill clefts.
Synonym(s): gill clefts

branchial clefts

the apertures in the walls of the PHARYNX of fish or young amphibia (four-seven pairs) which allow water entering by the mouth to pass out over the gills.

branchial, branchiogenic, branchiogenous

pertaining to, or resembling, gills of a fish or derivatives of homologous parts in higher forms.

branchial arches
paired arched columns that bear the gills in lower aquatic vertebrates and which, in embryos of higher vertebrates, become modified into structures of the face, mandible, ear and neck.
branchial clefts
the clefts between the branchial arches of the embryo, formed by rupture of the membrane separating corresponding entodermal pouch and ectodermal groove.
branchial cyst
a cyst formed deep within the neck from an incompletely closed branchial cleft, usually located between the second and third branchial arches. The branchial arches develop during early embryonic life and are separated by four clefts. As the fetus develops, these arches grow to form structures within the head and neck. Two of the arches grow together and enclose the cervical sinus, a cavity in the neck. A branchial cyst may develop within the cervical sinus. Called also branchiogenic or branchiogenous cyst. Seen rarely in dogs as a slowly developing swelling in the pharyngeal area, filled with saliva.
branchial groove
an external furrow lined with ectoderm, occurring in the embryo between two branchial arches.
References in periodicals archive ?
Although third branchial cleft anomalies are rare, they are still the second most common congenital lesion of the posterior cervical triangle of the neck after lymphatic malformations.
Third branchial cleft cysts most commonly appear on CT and MRI as unilocular cystic lesions in the posterior cervical triangle.
In this report, we described the diagnosis and successful management of 2 cases of second branchial cysts in adult Amazon parrots, one likely originating from a remnant of the second branchial cleft and the other from a remnant of the second branchial pouch.
31) The presence of in situ carcinoma lesions in the epithelial wall of the branchial cleft cyst in case 1 has also been described in humans (28,32-34) and could represent a link (premalignant lesion) between branchial cysts and primary branchiogenic carcinomas.
The purpose of this overview is to summarize the current concept of carcinomas arising in branchial cleft cysts (so-called, branchiogenic carcinoma), indicating that most, if not all, represent cystic metastases from oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma primaries.
Approximately 11% to 21% of lateral neck cysts that are presumed to be branchial cleft cysts turn out to be cystic metastases of squamous cell carcinomas after histopathologic analysis.
Branchial cleft anomalies--which include branchial cysts, sinuses, and fistulas--are typically seen in the pediatric population, and they are usually unilateral.
To the best of our knowledge, only 1 case of simultaneous first and second branchial cleft fistulas has been previously reported in the literature.
The first branchial cleft becomes the external auditory meatus, and the first branchial pouch gives rise to the middle ear and eustachian tube.
6) Huang et al reported a case in which a third branchial cleft anomaly presented as a retropharyngeal abscess.
Pharyngeal cyst arising from second branchial cleft.
Branchial cleft cyst manifesting as hypoglossal nerve palsy.