References in periodicals archive ?
3,4) In 1997, Vieille-Grosjean et al showed for the first time that at 4 weeks of development, human branchial arches express the paralogous groups using the mouse homologues of HOXB1, HOXA2, HOXB2, HOXA3, HOXB3, HOXD3, HOXB4, and HOXC4 as probes for in situ hybridization.
It appears' to occur as a result of a failure of fusion of the paired second branchial arches in the midline during embryogenesis.
The relevance of these anatomic details to our discussion of the facial nerve is that the muscles associated with the branchial arches and jaws are innervated by a special set of visceral motor components of the cranial nerves.
Aberrant internal carotid arteries are caused by an embryogenic malformation of the first and second branchial arches.