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chain

 [chān]
a collection of objects linked together in linear fashion, or end to end, as the assemblage of atoms or radicals in a chemical compound, or an assemblage of individual bacterial cells.
branched chain an open chain of atoms, usually carbon, with one or more side chains attached to it.
closed chain several atoms linked together so as to form a ring, which may be saturated, as in cyclopentane, or aromatic, as in benzene.
H chain (heavy chain) any of the large polypeptide chains of five classes that, paired with the L or light chains, make up the antibody molecule of an immunoglobulin; heavy chains bear the antigenic determinants that differentiate the classes of immunoglobulins. See also heavy chain disease.
J chain a polypeptide occurring in polymeric IgM and IgA molecules.
L chain (light chain) either of the two small polypeptide chains (molecular weight 22,000) that, when linked to H or heavy chains by disulfide bonds, make up the antibody molecule of an immunoglobulin monomer; they are of two types, kappa and lambda, which are unrelated to immunoglobulin class differences.
open chain a series of atoms united in a straight line; components of this series are related to methane.
chain reaction a chemical reaction that is self-propagating; each time a free radical is destroyed a new one is formed.
side chain a group of atoms attached to a larger chain or to a ring.

chain

(chān),
1. chemistry a series of atoms held together by one or more covalent bonds.
See also: sympathetic trunk.
2. bacteriology a linear arrangement of living cells that have divided in one plane and remain attached to each other.
See also: sympathetic trunk.
3. A series of reactions.
See also: sympathetic trunk.
4. In anatomy, a linked series of structures, for example, ossicular chain, chain ganglia , under ganglion.
See also: sympathetic trunk.
[L. catena]

chain

(chān) a collection of objects linked end to end.
branched chain  an open chain of atoms, usually carbon, with one or more side chains attached to it.
closed chain  several atoms linked together so as to form a ring, which may be saturated, as in cyclopentane, or aromatic, as in benzene.
electron transport chain  the final common pathway of biological oxidation, the series of electron carriers in the inner mitochondrial membrane that pass electrons from reduced coenzymes to molecular oxygen via sequential redox reactions coupled to proton transport, generating energy for biological processes.
Enlarge picture
Electron transport chain showing the three sites of coupling with oxidative phosphorylation, generating adenosine triphosphate.
H chain , heavy chain any of the large polypeptide chains of five classes that, paired with the light chains, make up the antibody molecule. Heavy chains bear the antigenic determinants that differentiate the immunoglobulin classes.
J chain  a polypeptide occurring in polymeric IgM and IgA molecules.
L chain , light chain either of the two small polypeptide chains (molecular weight 22,000) that, when linked to heavy chains by disulfide bonds, make up the antibody molecule; they are of two types, kappa and lambda, which are unrelated to immunoglobulin class differences.
open chain  a series of atoms united in a straight line; compounds of this series are related to methane.
polypeptide chain  the structural element of protein, consisting of a series of amino acid residues (peptides) joined together by peptide bonds.
respiratory chain  electron transport c.
side chain  a group of atoms attached to a larger chain or to a ring.

chain

Etymology: L, catena
1 a length of several units linked together in a linear pattern, such as a polypeptide chain of amino acids or a chain of atoms forming a chemical molecule.
2 a group of individual bacteria linked together, such as streptococci formed by a chain of cocci.
3 the serial relationship of certain structures essential to function, such as the chain of ossicles in the middle ear. Each of the small bones moves successively in response to vibration of the tympanic membrane, thus transmitting the auditory stimulus to the oval window. See also chain ligature.
4 a connected series, such as a chain of events.

CHAIN

Abbreviation for:
Contact, Help, Advice, and Information Network (Medspeak-UK)
Contrast Hierarchical Alignment and Interaction Network

chain

(chān)
1. chemistry A series of atoms held together by one or more covalent bonds.
2. bacteriology A linear arrangement of living cells that have divided in one plane and remain attached to each other.
3. A series of reactions.
4. anatomy A linked series of structures, e.g., ossicular chain, chain ganglia.
See also: sympathetic trunk

chain

(chān)
bacteriology a linear arrangement of living cells that have divided in one plane and remain attached to each other.

chain

a collection of objects linked together in linear fashion, or end to end, as the assemblage of atoms or radicals in a chemical compound, or an assemblage of individual bacterial cells.

chain binomial model
model of an outbreak of an infectious disease in which the outbreak is depicted as a series of steps with a binomial statement of the probability of an outcome at each step.
branched chain
an open chain of atoms, usually carbon, with one or more side chains attached to it.
heavy chain
any of the large polypeptide chains of five classes that, paired with the light chains, make up the antibody molecule. Heavy chains bear the antigenic determinants that differentiate the immunoglobulin classes. See also heavy-chain disease.
J chain
a polypeptide occurring in polymeric IgM and IgA molecules.
light chain
either of the two small polypeptide chains (molecular weight 22,000) that, when linked to heavy chains by disulfide bonds, make up the antibody molecule; they are of two types, kappa and lambda, which are unrelated to immunoglobulin class differences.
light chain disease
the overproduction of immunoglobulin light chain molecules by certain B cell tumors (plasmacytomas). See monoclonal gammopathy.
obstetric chain
used in obstetrics in cattle and horses to snare extremities and for traction. Made of rustproof metal with links designed not to kink or to jam. They have a loop link at each end to facilitate single-handed formation of a loop. The links are shaped so that the ring-grip handles used for traction will grip at any point and stay put with the strongest pull.
chain shank
a leather lead with a short section of chain at the proximal end. It can be placed over the horse's nose, through the mouth or across the upper gum for greater control.
side chain
a chain of atoms attached to a larger chain or to a ring.
stallion chain
strong chain, 1-2 ft (0.5 m) long, at the end of a solid lead. For leading a stallion with little chance of his biting through the lead.
chain termination method
References in periodicals archive ?
Then in a breakthrough study, scientists supplemented the diet of mice with a branched chain amino acids-enriched mixture of amino acids, similar to the composition of whey.
The panel authored this assessment of unsaturated branched chain alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients.
Branched chain waxes are less mobile than straight chain waxes.
The provision of sports supplements has become a multimillion dollar business and in popular sports magazines (such as Muscular Development, Iron Man, Muscles Magazine Flex, Muscle and Fitness, Muscle Media), creatine, glutamine, hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) and branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are among the most promoted supplements.
A study recently published in the respected clinical journal Cell Metabolism (4) reveals that branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) have the power to increase life span in part by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis--the spontaneous generation of new mitochondria.
They showed that addition of antibiotics (avilamycin) to weaner diets reduced the level of protein fermentation, as indicated by a slight reduction in the concentration of ammonia and lower concentrations of branched chain fatty acids.
released a new branched chain polyol suitable for applications in paint, coatings, plastics, adhesives, inks, electronics and raw materials for UV coatings.
Osaka, Japan, have patented a process for producing an alkyl-substituted hydroquinone with a compound including hydrogen atoms and/or a straight or branched chain alkyl group.
The second group, of increasing average molecular weight, with an ever-increasing proportion of slightly branched chain or "iso alkane" hydrocarbons, is the so-called intermediate wax group, where carbon numbers of the components can range from the low 20s to the upper 50s, and where the `normal' or alkane hydrocarbon reduces progressively with increasing average molecular weight from about 70% to about 30% of the whole.
They showed that a dietary increase in leucine, a branched chain amino acid, improved glucose tolerance, prevented fatty liver, reduced obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and rescued insulin signaling in muscle, liver and fat.
These three new products provide the high protein quality that whey proteins are known for with rapid digestibility, a complete amino acid profile and high levels of branched chain amino acids, including leucine.
The researchers focused on a specific type of amino acid known as branched chain amino acids or BCAAs.