brain tumour

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brain tumour

A neoplasm affecting the brain, which may be primary (arising in the brain or meninges) or secondary (i.e., metastatic to the brain).

Brain tumours are the 3rd most common malignancy in ages 15–34; 35,000 occur annually in the US. 1st-degree relatives of children with brain tumours have a 5-fold increased risk of CNS tumours, leukaemia and other childhood tumours in the affected family.

Clinical findings
Seizures, vision or hearing loss, hemiparesis, double vision, headache, bizarre behaviour, nausea, vomiting, memory loss.
Mass lesion by all modalities—CT, MRI, PET, ultrasound.

Surgery, gamma knife radiotherapy may be effective; chemotherapy and immunotherapy are less so.

Generally poor, but depends on histological grading; malignant gliomas account for 2.5% of all cancer-related deaths.

Brain tumours/masses 
• Non-neoplastic—craniopharyngioma, colloid cysts. 
• Primary, benign—meningioma, pituitary adenoma, acoustic neuroma, epidermoid tumours, choroid plexus papilloma. 
• Primary, low grade—pilocytic astrocytoma, astrocytoma, hemangioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, ganglioglioma. 
• Primary, malignant—anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, lymphoma, medulloblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour, germ cell tumour, pineal cell tumour, chordoma, choroid plexus carcinoma.
Carcinoma, meningeal carcinomatosis.
Location-specific symptoms of brain cancer 
• Brainstem—vomiting, incoordination, difficulty with swallowing and speech, unilateral facial muscle weakness (e.g., crooked smile, drooping eyelid), crossed eyes, poor vision, morning headache, drowsiness, hearing loss, head tilt, hemiparesis, personality changes.
• Frontal lobe—seizures, impaired judgment and memory, changed personality or mental capacity, hemiparalysis, loss of sense of smell, impaired vision, swollen optic nerve or papilledema; if both hemispheres are involved, changed mental state or personality, uncoordinated gait.
• Parietal lobe—loss of ability to write; if tumour is in the left hemisphere, speech disturbances and seizures, loss of recognition of body parts, spatial disorders.
• Occipital lobe—directional blindness, seizures.
• Temporal lobe—may be asymptomatic; occasionally speech defects, seizures.
• Ependyma—hydrocephalus, ± neck stiffness, head tilt, multiple cranial nerve palsies.
• Meninges—symptoms specific to the region being compressed; metastatic brain tumours cause oedema resulting in headache, vomiting and nausea, as well as location-specific symptoms.

brain tumour

Secondary spread of cancer to the brain, from a primary tumour elsewhere in the body is common. Primary tumour, originating in the skull is less common. Primary tumours arise from the brain coverings (MENINGIOMAS), the neurological supportive tissue (GLIOMAS), the blood vessels (HAEMANGIOMAS), the bone (OSTEOMAS) or the pituitary gland (PITUITARY ADENOMAS). Some are of congenital origin (CRANIOPHARYNGIOMAS, TERATOMAS) and are due to abnormal development.
References in periodicals archive ?
Georgia said: "I am only 12 but I already know about three people who have been diagnosed with a brain tumour and the devastating effect it has had on the person and family around them.
Farrington Brain Research SPOTTING THE SIGNS BRAIN tumours can be difficult to detect and symptoms can vary widely, depending on where in the brain they are, but Dr Kevin O'Neill, a consultant neurosurgeon at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust in London, says the most common signs are headaches and seizures.
The British Neuropathology Society, British Neuro-oncology Society, Brain Tumour Network, Medical Research Council and National Cancer Research Institute Brain Tumour Clinical Studies Group have provided input into and support for the project.
The researchers took this discovery and, in an animal model, identified a drug that is able to re-activate those immune cells and reduce brain tumour growth, thereby increasing the lifespan of mice two to three times.
The Brain Tumour Charity is the second largest brain tumour charity in the world, funding world-class research and providing support and information to everyone affected.
Brain Tumour UK, which has now merged with another charity to create The Brain Tumour Charity, is determined to improve chances of survival.
Risk factors for brain tumours in children * * Previous exposure to ionising radiation, eg, children with previous malignancies * Genetic conditions, eg, neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis * Male gender - higher risk for invasive brain tumours * Sibling or parent with a brain tumour * Parental occupation in industries such as aircraft, agriculture, petroleum, painting, printing, electrical and chemical solvents * Previous history of serious head injuries *(adapted from McKinney, 2004; Tidy, 2011)
Among a lot of other projects, the World Brain Tumour Day is dedicated to persons, who lost their fight against the brain tumour as well as to patients, who are still fighting this battle.
TV presenter and Brain Tumour UK patron Andrea McLean said: "I am really inspired by the hundreds of runners and teams taking part in RelayGB to raise vital funds for Brain Tumour UK.
Helen Bulbeck, of the charity Brainstrust, who support people with brain tumours, said: "This unique resource will give patients across the UK an even better chance in the future of specific treatments for their brain tumour.
Every day, around 50 people receive the devastating diagnosis of a brain tumour in the UK.