brain damage

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brain damage

Injury to the brain that is caused by various conditions, such as head trauma, inadequate oxygen supply, infection, or intracranial hemorrhage, and that may be associated with a behavioral or functional abnormality.

brain′-dam′aged (-dăm′ĭjd) adj.

brain damage

A term applied more often to the physically subtle, but functionally serious, injury sustained from temporary oxygen and sugar deprivation, than to gross and obvious injury from direct violence. Brain damage also commonly results from sudden local haemorrhage or THROMBOSIS, causing STROKE, and from toxic substances especially alcohol. Bacterial toxins released in the course of meningitis and brain abscess and inflammation caused by viruses are also damaging. Diseases such as multiple sclerosis can cause brain damage, as can the repeated multiple small haemorrhages sustained in boxing. Brain damage often affects the areas of higher function in a patchy way with loss of certain functions and retention of others. There may be paralysis and loss of sensation on one side of the body, epileptic fits, speech disturbances or loss of word comprehension (APHASIA), loss of certain learned voluntary skills (APRAXIA), or loss of part of the field of vision. Alternatively, brain damage may have a diffuse effect causing, in addition to focal effects, interference with conscious thought, memory and judgement. Loss of memory (amnesia) is a common feature. A proportion of brain-damaged people end up in a state of almost complete loss of the higher mental functions (AMENTIA).

brain damage

in sport this is usually a result of direct trauma to the head. More common in sports such as boxing, horse riding and falls during those carried out at height. See also head injury.

Patient discussion about brain damage

Q. I was wondering the rate at which alcohol induces brain damage. I am not an alcoholic and I use to drink only on weekends. I was wondering the rate at which alcohol induces brain damage; I know that over some years, damage occurs, but does anything happen after a month of drinking on weekends?


Q. What damage does depression do to the brain and how can you treat it? How does it affect your chemical balance, your brain? Is it critical or will be critical later in life? I just read on Yahoo News that Clinical stress could increase risk of Alzheimer's later in life. Does age matter like during teen years? I had depression and begun running. I noticed that I have a hard time focusing and absorbing information. I forgot a lot of things. All my brain seems to focus on is emotions. Can I change that? The running has made me feel a lot better afterwards

A. This is actually a good question- but I couldn’t find any research concerning long term damage from depression. It sounds unreasonable though…because there is no deprivation of oxygen or anything essential in depression. But the brain is a biological system that is under constant change – so it may be that pattern of thought changed. About the Alzheimer's- I only saw articles about depression because of Alzheimer.

More discussions about brain damage
References in periodicals archive ?
His technique works to delay brain damage when the oxygen supply to the brain of a person is shut off (Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy) for any reason: drug overdose, choking, stroke, suffocation, electrocution.
A lack of oxygen can cause hypoxia, which is the most common cause of brain damage, especially in premature or small babies.
In contrast, PTSD occurred in 40 percent of vets with other types of brain damage and in nearly half of those without brain damage.
He is a frequent lecturer to bar associations, brain injury associations and medical groups on public policy issues pertaining to brain damage, legal issues in representing persons and family members following brain trauma, and brain injury awareness and prevention.
A lack of fluid and nutrients led to brain damage and resulted in cerebral palsy.
International research carried out in the US, New Zealand and Australia has shown brain damage is not limited to the exact moment of birth, but carries on for several hours via a complicated chemical process in the brain.
Here is what the ABC poll asked: "As you may know, a woman in Florida named Terri Schiavo suffered brain damage and has been on life support for 15 years.
There was nothing that anyone could have done because he suffers with epilepsy because of his brain damage.
Howard: ``Well, technically speaking, the operation is brain damage, but on a par with a night of heavy drinking.
HEAVY social drinkers face the same brain damage as chronic alcoholics, scientists warned yesterday.
BRAIN damage suffered after strokes costs the NHS more than pounds 2.
Wrap your brain around this: the newest and most promising hope to repair brain damage comes from dead brains