brachiocephalic artery


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Related to brachiocephalic artery: brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, Left common carotid artery

brachiocephalic artery

first branch of the aortic arch. See also innominate artery.

artery

(art'e-re) plural.arteries [Gr. arteria, windpipe, artery]
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SYSTEMIC ARTERIES
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SYSTEMIC ARTERIES
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STRUCTURE OF AN ARTERY
A vessel carrying blood from the heart to the tissues.. Pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs to pick up oxygen and to release carbon dioxide; in contrast, systemic arteries carry oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body. See: illustration

Anatomy

Structurally, a typical artery has three tissue layers: the inner layer (tunica intima) has endothelial tissue; the middle layer (tunica media) has smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue; and the outer layer (tunica externa) has connective tissue. See: illustration

accessory meningeal artery

The fourth branch of the first segment of the maxillary artery. It enters the cranial cavity through the foramen ovale.

adrenal artery

The superior, the middle, or the inferior adrenal artery, all of which supply blood to the adrenal glands. The superior adrenal artery is a branch of the inferior phrenic artery, the middle adrenal artery is a branch of the aorta, and the inferior adrenal artery is a branch of the renal artery.
Synonym: suprarenal artery

alar artery

The branch of the angular artery that supplies the tissues of the ala nasi.

alveolar artery

The superior or the inferior alveolar artery (branches of the maxillary artery), which supply blood to the bones, gingivae, and teeth of the upper and lower jaws.

angular artery

The artery at the inner canthus of the eye; the facial artery.

anterior cerebral artery

An artery that supplies blood to the medial side of the cerebral hemisphere and the corpus callosum; it is part of the circle of Willis, and it branches from the internal carotid artery at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery anastomoses with the contralateral anterior cerebral artery via the anterior communicating artery.
See: brain (Major arteries of the brain) and circle of Willis for illus.

anterior communicating artery

The front-most link in the arterial loop called the circle of Willis; it interconnects the right and left anterior cerebral arteries.
See: brain (Major arteries of the brain) and circle of Willis for illus.

anterior inferior cerebellar artery

A branch of the basilar artery; it runs dorsally along the posterior edge of the pons and supplies blood to the hindbrain, the superior and middle cerebellar peduncles, and portions of the ventral cerebellum.
See: brain (Major arteries of the brain) for illus.

anterior interosseous artery

A branch of the common interosseous artery; it runs through the forearm on the anterior interosseous membrane.

anterior interventricular artery

Left anterior descending coronary artery.

anterior spinal artery

The left and right anterior spinal arteries are initially branches from the vertebral arteries, but as they descend to the hindbrain-spinal cord junction, they merge into a single midline artery that runs along the ventral surface of the spinal cord (in the anterior median sulcus). At each intervertebral foramen, radicular arteries join the anterior spinal artery, which supplies blood to the ventral half of the spinal cord.

anterior tibial artery

The terminal branch of the popliteal artery or the initial branch of the posterior tibial artery; it runs along the front of the leg alongside the peroneal (fibular) nerve. Its branches include the anterior and posterior tibial recurrent arteries and anterior medial and anterior lateral malleolar arteries; in the foot, it continues as the dorsalis pedis artery.
See: aortafor illus.

appendicular artery

A branch of the ileocolic artery; it supplies blood to the terminal ileum and appendix.

arcuate artery

In the kidneys, a branch of the interlobar arteries that runs along the base of the pyramids. Branches of the arcuate arteries are called the interlobular arteries, and these give rise to the afferent glomerular arteries.

ascending cervical artery

A small branch of the inferior thyroid artery; it runs up along the cervical vertebrae and provides blood to adjacent neck muscles.

ascending pharyngeal artery

The first or second branch of the external carotid artery; it runs along the pharynx, and it supplies blood to the pharynx, the soft palate, the prevertebral muscles, and the meninges. Its branches include the posterior meningeal and the inferior tympanic arteries. Synonym: pharyngeal artery

auditory artery

Internal auditory artery.

auricular artery

Posterior auricular artery.

axial artery

In the embryo, the precursor to the continuous subclavian, axillary, brachial, and interosseous arteries.

axillary artery

The continuation of the subclavian artery beyond the lateral border of the first rib; its name changes to the brachial artery when it passes the lower border of the tendon of the teres major muscle. Its branches (from medial to lateral) are the supreme (superior) thoracic, thoracoacromial, lateral thoracic, subscapular, and anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries.
See: brachial arteryfor illus.

basilar artery

The major artery supplying blood to the brainstem and the cerebellum. It forms as the union of the vertebral arteries on the ventral surface of the hindbrain; it runs as far as the midbrain, just rostral to the oculomotor nerves, where it splits into the right and left posterior cerebral arteries. Major branches include the pontine, internal auditory (labyrinthine), anterior inferior cerebellar, and superior cerebellar arteries. Strokes involving the basilar artery can produce damage to the cerebellum and to regions of the hindbrain regulating essential vegetative functions, such as consciousness and respiration.
See: brain (Major arteries of the brain); circle of Willis; and head (Arteries and veins of the head) for illus.
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BRACHIAL ARTERY

brachial artery

The main artery of the arm. The brachial artery is a continuation of the axillary artery and it runs on the inside (medial side) of the arm; it terminates by splitting into the radial and ulnar arteries. Its main branches include the deep brachial (profunda brachii) artery and the superior and inferior ulnar collateral arteries.
See: illustration

brachiocephalic artery

Innominate artery.

bronchial artery

A branch of the thoracic aorta or the upper intercostal arteries; usually there are two left bronchial arteries and one right bronchial artery. The bronchial arteries follow the arborization of the bronchial tree and supply oxygenated blood to the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles and to the connective tissue of the lungs. The first branches of the bronchial arteries include small arteries to the esophagus, pericardium, and mediastinum.
See: aorta for illus.

carotid artery

The common, the internal, or the external carotid artery.

celiac artery

The first unpaired midline artery branching from the abdominal aorta. It supplies blood to the foregut, i.e., the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, and proximal half of the duodenum. The celiac artery is short and wide; its branches include the left gastric, the splenic, and the common hepatic arteries.
Synonym: celiac trunk See: aorta for illus.

central retinal artery

A branch of the ophthalmic artery that enters the optic nerve in the rear of the orbit. The central retinal artery then emerges (usually as four branches, the superior and inferior temporal, and the superior and inferior nasal arteries) into the retina through the optic disc amidst the optic axons.

cerebellar artery

The anterior inferior, the posterior inferior, or the superior cerebellar artery.

cerebral artery

The anterior, the middle, or the posterior cerebral artery.

cervical artery

The ascending cervical, the deep cervical, the superficial cervical, or the transverse cervical artery.

choroidal artery

The anterior choroidal artery or one of the posterior choroidal arteries. The anterior choroidal artery it is a branch of the internal carotid artery; it supplies blood to the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle, the optic tract, the lateral geniculate body, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the globus pallidus, and parts of the thalamus. The posterior choroidal arteries are branches of the posterior cerebral artery; they supply blood to the choroid plexus of the third ventricle.

ciliary artery

The anterior ciliary, the short posterior ciliary, or the long posterior ciliary arteries, which supply blood to the walls, intraocular structures, and choroid layer of the eye.

circumflex coronary artery

Left circumflex artery.

circumflex femoral artery

The lateral or the medial circumflex femoral artery, both of which are branches of the deep femoral artery and innervate thigh muscles.

circumflex humeral artery

The anterior or the posterior circumflex humeral artery, both of which are branches of the axillary artery. The anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries anastomose and supply blood to the surgical neck of the humerus and the deltoid, the coracobrachialis, and the heads of the biceps muscles.
Synonym: humeral circumflex artery See: brachial artery for illus.

circumflex iliac artery

The deep circumflex iliac artery. It is a branch of the external iliac artery and it innervates the transversus abdominis and internal oblique muscles.

circumflex scapular artery

A branch of the subscapular artery. It supplies blood to the infraspinatus and subscapularis muscles and it anastomoses with the transverse cervical and suprascapular arteries.

coccygeal artery

Any of the branches of the internal iliac artery that supply blood to the coccyx and its surrounding tissues.

coiled artery

Spiral artery.

colic artery

The right, the middle, or the left colic artery.

collateral artery

The radial collateral, the median collateral, or the ulnar collateral artery, all of which are branches of the brachial artery and supply blood to the arm.

common carotid artery

A major artery to the head. The left common carotid usually arises from the aortic arch proximal to the left subclavian; the right common carotid is a branch of the brachiocephalic artery. Each common carotid artery runs rostrally in the carotid sheath and enters the neck (behind the sternocleidomastoid muscle) without branching; in the neck, between the level of the top of the trachea and the floor of the mouth, each common carotid artery divides into an internal and an external carotid artery.
See: head (Arteries and veins of the head)aorta (Branches of aorta)heart (The heart) for illus.

common hepatic artery

A branch of the celiac artery. It runs forward and to the right. After giving off the gastroduodenal artery, the common hepatic artery continues toward the liver as the hepatic artery.

common iliac artery

Either of the pair of terminal branches of the abdominal aorta, each supplying blood to one side of the pelvis, abdominal wall, and lower limbs. Its two branches are the external and the internal iliac arteries.
See: aorta (Branches of aorta)for illus.

common interosseous artery

A branch of the ulnar artery; the branches of the common interosseous artery include the posterior and the anterior interosseous arteries.
See: brachial artery for illus.

communicating artery

The anterior or the posterior communicating artery in the circle of Willis at the base of the brain.
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CORONARY ARTERIES

coronary artery

The right coronary artery, the left coronary artery, or their main branches. See: illustration

cremasteric artery

A branch of the inferior epigastric artery. In the male, it runs with and supplies blood to the spermatic cord; in the female, it runs with the round ligament.

cystic artery

A branch of either the hepatic or the right hepatic artery. It follows the cystic duct to the gallbladder.

deep brachial artery

Profunda brachii artery.

deep cervical artery

A branch of the costocervical trunk (from the subclavian artery). It runs to the cervical vertebrae, it supplies blood to the semispinalis cervicis muscles, and it anastomoses with the descending branch of the occipital artery.

deep femoral artery

A branch of the femoral artery; it originates from the posterior side of the femoral artery and it runs in the posterior thigh. Its branches include the medial circumflex femoral and the lateral circumflex femoral arteries.
Synonym: profunda femoris artery See: aorta (Branches of aorta) for illus.

deep temporal artery

The posterior or the anterior deep temporal artery, which are the second and fifth branches of the second segment of the maxillary artery. These arteries supply blood to the temporalis muscle.

descending palatine artery

A branch of the maxillary artery; it runs downward in the greater palatine canal. Its branches include the lesser and the greater palatine arteries.

digital artery

The digital arteries run with the digital nerves along the medial and lateral sides of each finger.
See: brachial artery for illus.

dominant artery

In cardiology, the coronary artery that supplies the posterior descending artery (PDA) of the heart. The coronary circulation is said to be “right dominant” when the PDA receives its blood flow from the right coronary artery, and “left dominant” when its flow comes from the left coronary artery, via the left circumflex artery.

dorsalis pedis artery

The continuation of the anterior tibial artery beyond the ankle; it supplies blood to the foot.

dorsal artery of the penis

A branch of the internal pudendal artery; the dorsal arteries run inside the Buck fascia along the dorsal surface of the penis, on either side of the deep dorsal vein.

dorsal scapular artery

A branch of the subclavian artery; it runs with the dorsal scapular nerve and supplies blood to the rhomboid, latissimus dorsi, and trapezus muscles.

elastic artery

A large artery in which elastic connective tissue is predominant in the middle layer (tunica media). Elastic arteries include the aorta and its larger branches (brachiocephalic, common carotid, subclavian, and common iliac), which conduct blood to the muscular arteries.

end artery

An artery whose branches do not anastomose with those of other arteries, e.g., arteries to the brain and spinal cord. Synonym: terminal artery

epigastric artery

The superior or the inferior epigastric artery.

esophageal artery

The superior or the inferior epigastric artery. Both types of esophageal arteries anastomose with each other.

ethmoidal artery

The anterior or the posterior ethmoidal artery, both of which are branches of the ophthalmic artery and supply blood to the paranasal sinuses and the walls of the nasal cavity.

external carotid artery

One of the two terminal divisions of the common carotid artery; it supplies blood to the extracranial parts of the head. The external carotid arises from the common carotid artery at about the level of the top of the trachea; it then runs behind the neck of the mandible toward the rear of the parotid gland. Its major branches are (from bottom to top): the ascending pharyngeal, superior thyroid, lingual, facial, maxillary, occipital, posterior auricular, and superficial temporal arteries.
See: head (Arteries and veins of the head) for illus.

external iliac artery

One of the two end branches of the common iliac artery; it runs, retroperitoneally, along the linea terminalis of the pelvis. Its branches include the inferior epigastric artery and the deep circumflex iliac artery.
See: aorta (Branches of aorta) for illus.

external pudendal artery

The deep external pudendal artery; it is a branch of the femoral artery, and it supplies blood to the scrotum or the labium majus.

facial artery

The fourth branch of the external carotid artery; it supplies blood to the submandibular gland, the lips, the nose, the facial muscles, and the angle of the eye. Its branches include the ascending palatine, tonsillar, submental, inferior and superior labial, and lateral nasal arteries.
See: head (Arteries and veins of the head) for illus.

femoral artery

The continuation of the external iliac artery beyond the inguinal ligament; it runs in the femoral sheath between the femoral nerve (laterally) and the femoral vein (medially). Branches of the femoral artery include the superficial epigastric, the superficial circumflex iliac, the external pudendal, the deep femoral, and the descending genicular arteries. Behind the knee, the femoral artery continues as the popliteal artery.
See: aorta (Branches of aorta) for illus.

fibular artery

Peroneal artery.

gastric artery

The left or the right gastric artery, , or a short gastric artery.

gastroduodenal artery

A branch of the common hepatic artery; it runs behind the duodenum and branches into the right gastroepiploic artery and the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery.

gastroepiploic artery

The right or the left gastroepiploic artery.

genicular artery

The descending genicular artery, which is a branch of the femoral artery; or the lateral superior, medial superior, lateral inferior, medial inferior, or middle genicular arteries, which are branches of the popliteal artery.

gluteal artery

The inferior or the superior gluteal artery.

glaserian artery

A branch of the internal maxillary artery that supplies the tympanum.

greater palatine artery

A branch of the maxillary artery; it runs in the roof of the mouth and supplies blood to the palate, the incisive canal, and the nasal septum.

hemorrhoidal artery

Rectal artery.

hepatic artery

The continuation of the common hepatic artery past the point from which the gastroduodenal artery branches off. The single (unpaired) hepatic artery gives off a branch to the gallbladder, i.e., the cystic artery and a branch to the stomach, i.e., the right gastric artery, before it divides into a right and left hepatic artery, which deliver systemic (oxygenated) blood to the liver.
See: liver for illus.

high-takeoff coronary artery

A coronary artery that originates more than a centimeter above the sinotubular junction of the aorta.

humeral circumflex artery

Circumflex humeral artery

hyaloid artery

A fetal artery that supplies nutrition to the lens. It disappears in the later months of gestation.

hypogastric artery

Internal iliac artery.

hypophyseal artery

The superior or the interior hypophyseal artery, both of which are intracranial branches of the internal carotid or the posterior communicating arteries and both supply blood to the hypophysis (pituitary gland).

ileal artery

A branch of the ileocolic artery; it supplies blood to the lower ileum.

ileocolic artery

A lower branch of the superior mesenteric artery; it runs down and to the right to supply blood to the lower portion of the ascending colon and the ileocolic junction. Its inferior branch gives rise to the ascending colic, cecal, appendicular, and ileal arteries.

iliac artery

The common, the external, or the internal iliac artery.

iliolumbar artery

A branch of the internal iliac artery; it supplies blood to the iliacus, psoas major, and quadratus lumborum muscles.

infarct-related artery

An artery whose obstruction has resulted in the death of tissue, typically, in the heart or brain.

inferior alveolar artery

The fifth branch of the first segment of the maxillary artery. With the inferior alveolar nerve, the inferior alveolar artery enters the mandibular canal through the mandibular foramen. Before entering the foramen, the inferior alveolar artery gives off the mylohyoid artery; the terminal branch of the inferior alveolar artery is the mental artery.

inferior epigastric artery

A branch of the external iliac artery, just above the inguinal ligament; it runs upward and medially along the anterior abdominal wall medial to the internal inguinal ring. It then continues upward in the rectus sheath and eventually anastomoses with the superior epigastric artery, which is running downward in the sheath.

inferior gluteal artery

A branch of the internal iliac artery; it leaves the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen, below the piriformis muscle, and it supplies blood to the gluteus maximus muscle. Its branches include the sciatic and coccygeal arteries, and it anastomoses with the lateral and medial circumflex femoral arteries.

inferior labial artery

A branch of the facial artery; it runs beneath the muscles of the lower lip and anastomoses with the mental artery and the contralateral inferior labial artery.

inferior mesenteric artery

The third unpaired midline artery that branches from the abdominal aorta; it originates 3 to 4 cm proximal to the aortic bifurcation. It supplies blood to the hindgut, i.e., the distal half of the transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the rectum. Its branches include the left colic, sigmoid, and superior rectal arteries.
See: aorta (Branches of aorta), circulation (Circulation of blood through heart and major vessels) for illus.

inferior pancreatic artery

A branch of the superior mesenteric artery; it supplies blood to the proximal duodenum and the head of the pancreas, and it anastomoses with the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery.

inferior phrenic artery

A branch of the abdominal aorta just below the diaphragm; it supplies blood to the diaphragm. Its branches include the superior adrenal arteries.
Synonym: phrenic artery See: aorta (Branches of aorta) for illus.

inferior rectal artery

A branch of the pudendal artery; its two or three branches supply blood to the anus.

inferior thyroid artery

A branch of the thyrocervical trunk (from the subclavian artery); it winds upward behind the carotid sheath and then runs medially toward the thyroid gland. Its branches include the ascending cervical, pharyngeal, inferior laryngeal, and superior and inferior thyroid arteries.

infraorbital artery

A branch of the maxillary artery; it enters the rear of the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure, it runs in the infraorbital groove, and it emerges on the face through the infraorbital foramen. It supplies blood to the canine and incisor teeth, the lower eyelid, upper lip, and cheek.

innominate artery

The large artery arising from the arch of the aorta, deep to the manubrium of the sternum, and running to the right. It ends by dividing into the right subclavian and the right common carotid arteries. Synonym: brachiocephalic artery; brachiocephalic trunk
See: aorta (Branches of aorta); circulation (Circulation of blood through heart and major vessels); head (Arteries and veins of the head) for illus.

intercostal artery

Any of the nine pairs of arteries that originate from the dorsal side of the thoracic aorta and run horizontally between the ribs to supply blood to the skin, muscles, and bones of the chest wall. These aortic intercostal arteries run in interspaces 3 to 11. The intercostal arteries of the first two interspaces are branches of the superior intercostal artery (a branch of the costocervical trunk of the subclavian artery). The anterior (sternal) segments of the upper nine intercostal spaces receive their blood supplies from the anterior intercostal arteries, which are branches of the internal mammary artery.
Synonym: posterior intercostal artery See: aorta (Branches of aorta)for illus.

interlobar artery

A branch of the lobar artery of the kidney; it runs between the kidney pyramids and toward the cortex of the kidney. The interlobar arteries give rise to the arcuate arteries, which run along the bases of the pyramids.

interlobular artery

A branch of the arcuate artery in the kidney. The interlobular arteries run in the cortex of the kidney and give rise to the afferent glomerular arteries.

internal auditory artery

A branch of the basilar artery; it enters the internal auditory meatus, with the facial (CN VII) and vestibuloaccoustic (CN VIII) nerves, and supplies blood to the cochlea, the labyrinth, and the facial nerve.

internal carotid artery

One of the two divisions of the common carotid artery. After branching from the common carotid, the internal carotid continues in the carotid sheath to the carotid foramen in the base of the skull just anterior to the jugular foramen. The internal carotid then turns forward and runs in the carotid canal inside the petrous part of the temporal bone. Passing over the foramen lacerum, the internal carotid emerges from its canal and follows the carotid groove upward along the medial wall of the middle cranial fossa, passing through the cavernous sinus. Just below the optic nerve, the internal carotid loops back and turns upward to become the middle cerebral artery of the circle of Willis. As it passes the optic nerve, the internal carotid puts out its first major branch, the ophthalmic artery.

Each internal carotid artery supplies blood to the ipsilateral eye and about 80% of the ipsilateral brain, including most of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes and the basal ganglia. These regions include the primary motor and sensory cortices; therefore, a blockage of the internal carotid artery circulation, e.g., a unilateral ischemic stroke, often produces unilateral motor weakness or sensory loss on the opposite side of the body.

In the neck, the internal carotid artery contains two receptor sites, the carotid body, a chemoreceptor for the oxygen concentration of the blood, and baroreceptors that detect and respond to arterial pressure.

See: head (Arteries and veins of the head) ; brain (Major arteries of the brain); and circle of Willis for illus.

internal iliac artery

One of the two branches of the common iliac artery; it arises at the level of the lumbosacral disc.
Synonym: hypogastric artery See: aorta (Branches of aorta)for illus.

internal mammary artery

Abbreviation: IMA
A branch of the subclavian artery that runs down the anterior wall of the thorax lateral to the sternum. Its branches include the anterior intercostal arteries, which supply blood to the anterior (sternal) segments of the upper nine intercostal spaces, and the musculophrenic arteries, which supply blood to the anterior (sternal) segments of intercostal spaces 7 to 11. The internal mammary artery continues in the abdominal wall as the superior epigastric artery. The left internal mammary artery (LIMA) is the artery most commonly used in coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Synonym: internal thoracic artery

internal pudendal artery

A branch of the internal iliac artery. The internal pudendal artery leaves the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen alongside the inferior gluteal artery, below the piriformis muscle; the artery then reenters the pelvis, running into the ischiorectal fossa via the lesser sciatic foramen. Its branches include the posterior scrotal, posterior labial, perineal, and inferior rectal arteries and the deep artery of the penis or clitoris, the dorsal artery of the penis or clitoris, and the artery of the bulb of the penis.

internal spermatic artery

Testicular artery.

internal thoracic artery

Abbreviation: ITA
Internal mammary artery.

interosseous artery

The anterior, the common, or the posterior interosseous artery.

intersegmental artery

In the embryo, any one of the ladders of arteries branching from the dorsal aorta and running with the spinal nerves.

interventricular artery

The left anterior descending coronary artery or the posterior descending coronary artery.

jejunal artery

Any of the branches of the superior mesenteric artery that supply blood to the jejunum.

labial artery

The superior or the inferior labial artery.

labyrinthine artery

A branch of the basilar or the anterior inferior cerebellar artery; it enters the internal acoustic meatus and supplies blood to the inner ear.

lateral plantar artery

One of the two terminal branches of the posterior tibial artery; it runs in an arc on the plantar side of the foot, first coursing laterally from the medial side of the calcaneus bone and then curving medially to form the plantar arterial arch.

lateral thoracic artery

A branch of the axillary artery; it supplies blood to the pectoralis minor muscle and to the mammary gland.

laryngeal artery

The superior laryngeal artery (a branch of the superior thyroid artery) or the inferior laryngeal artery (a branch of the inferior thyroid artery), which supply blood to the larynx.

left anterior descending artery

Abbreviation: LAD
Left anterior descending coronary artery.

left anterior descending coronary artery

Abbreviation: LAD coronary artery
One of two major branches of the left coronary artery. It runs down the anterior interventricular groove, and it supplies blood to the anterior walls of the right and left ventricles and to the interventricular septum.
Synonym: anterior interventricular artery; left anterior descending artery; left descending artery; left descending coronary artery See: heart for illus.

left circumflex artery

Abbreviation: LCx
An artery that branches from the left main coronary artery and runs to the left, in the atrioventricular groove, i.e., the coronary sulcus, around the lateral and posterior sides of the heart. It supplies blood to portions of the left ventricle and left atrium.
Synonym: circumflex coronary artery; left circumflex coronary artery See: heart (The heart) for illus.

left circumflex coronary artery

Left circumflex artery.

left colic artery

An upper branch of the inferior mesenteric artery; it runs to the left, it supplies blood to the descending colon, and it anastomoses with the middle colic artery and the upper sigmoid artery.

left common carotid artery

The second branch of the aortic arch; it supplies blood to the left side of the neck and head.

left coronary artery

Abbreviation: LCA
One of the two main epicardial arteries that feed the heart muscle. It originates from the left aortic sinus, a dilation in the aorta just behind one of the leaflets of the aortic valve. At the level of the junction between the atria and the ventricles, the left coronary splits into the circumflex artery, which runs to the left along the outside of the heart in the atrioventricular groove, and the left anterior descending artery, which continues down the interventricular groove. Among the heart regions it supplies are most of left atrium, the left ventricle, and the interventricular septum.
Synonym: left main coronary artery See: aorta (Branches of aorta)for illus.; heart (The heart) for illus.

left descending artery

Left anterior descending coronary artery.

left descending coronary artery

Left anterior descending coronary artery.

left gastric artery

A branch of the celiac artery that runs along the lesser curvature of the stomach, to which it supplies blood; its esophageal branches supply blood to the esophagus below the diaphragm.
See: circulation (Circulation of blood through heart and major vessels) for illus.

left gastroepiploic artery

A branch of the splenic artery; it runs down along the greater curvature of the stomach, to which it supplies blood.

left main coronary artery

Left coronary artery.

lenticulostriate artery

A branch of the middle or the anterior cerebral artery that supplies blood to the basal ganglia and much of the internal capsule.

lingual artery

The third branch of the external carotid artery; it supplies blood to the tongue, the suprahyoid region of the neck, the sublingual gland, and the palatine tonsils. Its branches include the suprahyoid, dorsal tongue, and sublingual arteries.

lobar artery

In the kidney, a branch of the segmental artery (which is a branch of the renal artery). Each pyramid of the kidney has one lobar artery; lobar arteries branch into 2-3 interlobar arteries.

lumbar artery

One of several branches of the abdominal aorta that run toward the lumbar spine; they supply blood to the vertebral bodies, the muscles of the lower back and the posterior wall of the abdomen. The lumbar arteries anastomose with each other and with the lower intercostal, the subcostal, and the superior and the inferior epigastric arteries.

mammary artery

The internal mammary artery, which is a branch of the subclavian artery, or the lateral mammary artery, which is a branch of the lateral thoracic artery.
See: aorta (Branches of aorta)for illus.

marginal artery

An arching feeder artery for the colon; it is composed of anastomoses of branches of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, and it runs in the mesentery parallel to the colon.

maxillary artery

A major end branch of the external carotid artery; it arises behind the neck of the mandible and it passes behind the facial bones. Its branches include the deep auricular, anterior tympanic, middle meningeal, petrosal, superior tympanic, frontal, parietal, accessory meningeal, inferior alveolar, mylohyoid, mental, masseteric, pterygoid, buccal, posterior superior alveolar, infraorbital, descending palatine, pterygoid, and sphenopalatine arteries.
See: head (Arteries and veins of the head) for illus.

medial plantar artery

One of the two terminal branches of the posterior tibial artery; it runs along the medial side of the foot.

median sacral artery

The final unpaired midline artery branching from the aorta; it originates 1 cm proximal to the aortic bifurcation, and it ends in the coccyx. Its branches include a pair of lumbar arteries and a number of small arteries to the rectum. Synonym: middle sacral artery

meningeal artery

The accessory, the anterior, the middle, or the posterior meningeal artery.

mental artery

The terminal branch of the inferior alveolar artery; it exits the mandible through the mental foramen to supply blood to the chin.

mesenteric artery

The superior or the inferior mesenteric artery.

middle cerebral artery

Abbreviation: MCA
The continuation of the internal carotid artery beyond the circle of Willis. It runs along the lateral (Sylvian) fissure between the frontal and temporal lobes. Branches of the middle cerebral artery supply blood to the frontal, orbital, parietal, and temporal lobes of the brain. Strokes involving the middle cerebral artery often result in sensory deficits and muscle weakness on the contralateral side of the body; when a middle cerebral artery stroke is in the dominant side of the brain, the patient can also have aphasia.
See: brain (Major arteries of the brain) and circle of Willis for illus.

middle colic artery

An upper branch of the superior mesenteric artery; it runs to the right, it supplies blood to the transverse colon, and it anastomoses with the right colic artery and with branches of the left colic artery.

middle meningeal artery

The third branch of the first segment of the maxillary artery. It enters the cranial cavity through the foramen ovale and runs dorsally in the dura, branching widely along the side of the skull. It divides into a frontal and a parietal branch.

middle rectal artery

A branch of the internal iliac artery or the inferior vesical artery; it supplies blood to the lower rectum and upper anal canal.

middle sacral artery

Median sacral artery.

muscular artery

A medium-sized artery with more smooth muscle than elastic tissue in the tunica media. Most named arteries are muscular arteries.

nasal artery

The dorsal, the lateral, the posterior, or the septal nasal artery, which are branches of either the ophthalmic artery or the maxillary artery.

nodal artery

The branch of the right coronary artery that supplies blood to the sinoatrial node.

nutrient artery

An artery providing the blood supply to a bone.

obturator artery

A branch of the internal iliac artery; it runs along the inner wall of the pelvis and then leaves the pelvic cavity through the obturator canal. Its branches include the pubic artery.

occipital artery

An end branch of the external carotid artery; it runs up the back of the scalp and supplies blood to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the meninges, and the scalp. Its branches include the sternocleidomastoid, meningeal, auricular, and mastoid arteries.

omental artery

Any of the branches of the gastroepiploic arteries that supply blood to the omentum.

ophthalmic artery

A branch of the internal carotid artery; it leaves of the cranial cavity through the optic foramen with the optic nerve. In the orbit, it branches to form the lacrimal, supraorbital, anterior and posterior ethmoidal, medial palpebral, supratrochlear, dorsal nasal, meningeal, muscular, and ciliary arteries. In addition, it gives rise to the central retinal artery.

orbital artery

Any of the branches of the infraorbital artery that supply the extraocular muscles.

ovarian artery

In females, a branch of the abdominal aorta; it arises below the renal artery and it runs in the suspensory ligament of the ovary, supplying blood to the ovaries, their ligaments, the fallopian tubes, and the distal ureters. The ovarian artery anastomoses with the uterine artery.

palatine artery

The descending palatine artery or one of its branches, the lesser or the greater palatine arteries.

pancreatic artery

Any of the many small branches of the splenic or the superior mesenteric artery that supplies blood to the pancreas.

pancreaticoduodenal artery

The superior or the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery.

parent artery

1. An artery from which another, smaller blood vessel originates.
2. An artery in which an aneurysm forms.

perineal artery

A branch of the internal pudendal artery; it supplies blood to the urogenital diaphragm, the perineal muscles, and the skin of the scrotum or labium majus.

peroneal artery

A branch of the posterior tibial artery; it runs in the back of the lateral side of the leg, between the tibialis posterior and flexor hallucis longus muscles. Its branches include the lateral calcaneal artery.
Synonym: fibular artery

pharyngeal artery

Ascending pharyngeal artery

phrenic artery

Inferior phrenic artery.

plantar artery

The medial or the lateral plantar artery.

popliteal artery

The continuation of the femoral artery after it leaves the adductor canal. Its branches include the medial and lateral superior genicular, middle genicular, and medial and lateral inferior genicular arteries.

posterior auricular artery

An end branch of the external carotid artery; it supplies blood to the external ear, the tympanic membrane, and the posterior temporal scalp. Its branches include the stylomastoid, mastoid, and posterior tympanic arteries.
Synonym: auricular artery

posterior cerebral artery

The end branch of the basilar artery; it runs around the sides of the midbrain, through the tentorium cerebelli, and along the temporal and occipital lobes to end in the calcarine fissure (the primary visual cortex). Its branches supply blood to the posterior hypothalamus, subthalamus, the choroid plexus of the third ventricle, the internal capsule, the ventral (inferior) surfaces of the temporal and occipital lobes, and parts of the thalamus and the midbrain. The posterior cerebral artery anastomoses with the circle of Willis via the posterior communicating artery.
See: brain (Major arteries of the brain) and circle of Willis for illus.

posterior communicating artery

An artery interconnecting the posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries at the base of the brain.
See: brain (Major arteries of the brain) and circle of Willis for illus.

posterior descending artery

Abbreviation: PDA
Usually (in 85% of people), a branch of the right coronary artery. It runs in the posterior interventricular groove and supplies the right ventricle and the apex of the heart.
Synonym: posterior descending coronary artery; posterior interventricular artery

posterior descending coronary artery

Posterior descending artery.

posterior inferior cerebellar artery

A branch of the vertebral arteries; it runs dorsally along the edge of the hindbrain and supplies the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle, the lateral hindbrain, the inferior cerebellar peduncle, and posterior regions of the cerebellum.
See: brain (Major arteries of the brain) for illus.

posterior interosseous artery

A branch of the common interosseous artery; it descends through the forearm between the superficial and deep layers of muscle.

posterior intercostal artery

Intercostal artery

posterior interventricular artery

Posterior descending artery.

posterior meningeal artery

The terminal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery; it enters the skull through the jugular foramen to supply the meninges of the cerebellar fossa.

posterior spinal artery

The left and right posterior spinal arteries run separately along the dorsal surface of the spinal cord and supply blood to the dorsal half of the spinal cord. At the top of the spinal cord, the posterior spinal arteries are branches of the vertebral arteries; at each intervertebral foramen, radicular arteries anastomose with the posterior spinal arteries.

posterior tibial artery

The continuation of the popliteal artery below the popliteus muscle. Its branches include the peroneal (fibular), the posterior medial malleolar, and the medial calcaneal arteries. The posterior tibial artery continues into the foot behind the medial malleolus; beside the calcaneus bone, it branches into the medial and lateral plantar arteries, which run in the plantar side of the foot.

profunda brachii artery

A branch of the brachial artery that dives to the back of the arm and runs beside the radial nerve. Its branches include the radial collateral and medial collateral arteries.
Synonym: deep brachial artery See: brachial artery for illus.

profunda femoris artery

Deep femoral artery.

artery of the pterygoid canal

Vidian artery.

pudendal artery

The external or the internal pudendal artery.

pulmonary artery

The right and left pulmonary arteries branch from the pulmonary trunk. They carry deoxygenated blood (from the right ventricle) into the lungs to exchange respiratory gases at the capillaries that surround the alveoli.
See: circulation (Circulation of blood through heart and major vessels) and heart (The heart) for illus.

radial artery

A branch of the brachial artery that begins at the level of the cubital fossa and ends in the deep palmar arterial arch of the hand. It supplies blood to the forearm, the lateral side of the wrist, and the palm, and its branches include the radial recurrent, superficial palmar, palmar carpal, dorsal carpal, dorsal metacarpal, and dorsal digital arteries.
See: brachial artery for illus.

radicular artery

Any of the arteries that are branches of the vertebral, deep cervical, ascending cervical, inferior thyroid, posterior intercostal, lumbar, or lateral sacral arteries and that enter the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramina to divide and then to join the posterior and anterior spinal arteries.

rectal artery

The superior, the middle, or the inferior rectal artery.
Synonym: hemorrhoidal artery

renal artery

A branch of the abdominal aorta; it supplies blood to the kidneys, the adrenal gland, and the superior portion of the ureter. The right renal artery is longer than the left and passes behind the inferior vena cava and the right renal vein. Branches of the renal artery include segmental arteries of the kidney, ureteric arteries, and inferior adrenal arteries.
See: aorta (Branches of aorta)for illus.

right colic artery

A branch of the superior mesenteric artery; it runs to the right, it supplies blood to the ascending colon, and it anastomoses with the middle colic artery and branches of the ileocolic artery.

right common carotid artery

A branch of the brachiocephalic artery supplying blood to the right side of the neck and the head.

right coronary artery

Abbreviation: RCA
One of the two main epicardial arteries that feed the heart muscle. It originates from the right aortic sinus, a dilation in the aorta just behind one of the leaflets of the aortic valve. It runs to the right along the outside of the heart in the atrioventricular groove, i.e., the coronary sulcus, between the atria and the ventricles. Usually, its two main branches are the right marginal artery and the posterior descending artery. Among the heart regions it supplies are the sinoatrial (SA) and atrioventricular (AV) nodes, the right ventricle, the right atrium, and often, the inferior or posterior wall of the left ventricle.
Synonym: right main coronary artery See: aorta (Branches of aorta) and heart (The heart) for illus.

right gastric artery

A branch of the common hepatic artery that runs along the lesser curvature of the stomach, beginning in the pyloric region, and that meets and anastomoses with the left gastric artery.

right gastroepiploic artery

A terminal branch of the gastroduodenal artery; it runs up along the greater curvature of the stomach from the pyloric region.

right main coronary artery

Right coronary artery.

root artery

An artery accompanying a nerve root into the spinal cord.

sacral artery

The median sacral artery, which is the last unpaired branch of the aorta, or the lateral sacral artery, which is a branch of the internal iliac artery.

scapular artery

The circumflex scapular or the dorsal scapular artery.

sciatic artery

A branch of the inferior gluteal artery that runs alongside the sciatic nerve.

sheathed artery

The terminal portion of a pulp artery in the spleen. It has distinctive thickenings in its walls.

short gastric artery

One of the five to seven small branches of the splenic artery that innervate the fundus and the upper region of the greater curvature of the stomach.

sigmoid artery

Any of three branches of the inferior mesenteric artery; they run to the left, they supply blood to the sigmoid colon, and they anastomose with the left colic and superior rectal arteries.

spermatic artery

Testicular artery.

sphenopalatine artery

An end branch of the maxillary artery; it runs into the posterior nasal cavity and it also supplies blood to the frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses. Its branches include the posterior lateral nasal and posterior septal arteries, and it anastomoses with the ethmoidal, greater palatine, and superior labial arteries.

spinal artery

The anterior or the posterior spinal artery.

spiral artery

The coiled terminal branch of a uterine artery. It supplies the superficial two thirds of the endometrium, and, in a pregnant uterus, it empties into intervillous spaces, supplying blood that bathes the chorionic villi at the placental site.
Synonym: coiled artery

splenic artery

A branch of the celiac artery; it runs to the left, under the stomach and along the pancreas to the hilum of the spleen where it divides into six or more branches. It supplies blood to the spleen, stomach, omentum, and pancreas.
See: circulation (Circulation of blood through heart and major vessels) for illus.

striate artery

A lenticulostriate or a thalamostriate artery (a branch of the posterior cerebral artery) that supplies blood to the striate nucleus of the brain.

striated artery

One of the branches of the middle cerebral artery that supply the basal nuclei of the brain.

subclavian artery

The large horizontal artery at the base of the neck that supplies blood to the neck, shoulder, upper chest, and arm. The right subclavian artery originates from the brachiocephalic artery; the left subclavian artery originates from the aortic arch. The branches of the subclavian (beginning at its origin) are the vertebral artery (on the right side only), the thyrocervical trunk, the internal mammary artery, the costocervical trunk, and the transverse (descending) scapular artery.
See: head (Arteries and veins of the head); aorta (Branches of aorta); and heart (The heart) for illus.

sublingual artery

A branch of the lingual artery that supplies blood to the sublingual gland.

submental artery

A branch of the facial artery; it supplies blood to the submandibular gland and the chin.

subscapular artery

A large branch of the axillary artery; it supplies blood to the back wall of the thorax and the latissimus dorsi and subscapularis muscles. Its branches include the thoracodorsal and circumflex scapular arteries.

sulcal artery

A tiny branch of the anterior spinal artery.

superficial epigastric artery

A branch of the femoral artery; it supplies blood to the superficial fascia of the lower abdomen and the inguinal lymph nodes, and it anastomoses with the inferior epigastric artery.

superficial temporal artery

An end branch of the external carotid artery; it supplies blood to the scalp in front of the ear and to the parotid glands. Its branches include the transverse facial, middle temporal, anterior auricular, zygomaticoorbital, frontal, and parietal arteries.

superior cerebellar artery

A branch of the basilar artery; it sends branches to the midbrain, pons, medial cerebellum, and deep cerebellar nuclei.
See: brain (Major arteries of the brain) for illus.

superior epigastric artery

The terminal branch of the internal thoracic artery. The superior epigastric artery runs downward through the anterior diaphragm and enters the rectus sheath; it anastomoses with the upward traveling inferior epigastric artery.

superior gluteal artery

A large branch of the internal iliac artery; it leaves the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen, above the piriformis muscle. Its branches include a superficial branch, which supplies blood to the gluteus maximus muscle, and a deep branch, which supplies blood to the other gluteus muscles and to the greater trochanter of the femur. The superior gluteal artery anastomoses with the inferior gluteal, the deep circumflex iliac, and the lateral femoral circumflex arteries.

superior intercostal artery

A branch of the costocervical trunk (from the subclavian artery) that divides to form the intercostal arteries that run in the first two intercostal spaces.

superior laryngeal artery

A branch of the superior thyroid artery; it follows the internal laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, it supplies blood to the larynx, and it anastomoses with the inferior laryngeal artery.

superior labial artery

A branch of the facial artery; it supplies blood to the upper lip and the rostral nasal cavity and nasal septum.

superior mesenteric artery

Abbreviation: SMA
The second unpaired midline artery branching from the abdominal aorta; it originates 1 to 2 cm distal to the celiac artery. It supplies blood to the midgut, i.e., the distal half of the duodenum, the jejunum, the ileum, the ascending colon, and the proximal half of the transverse colon. Its branches include the inferior pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, ileal, ileocolic, marginal, and right and middle colic arteries.
See: aorta (Branches of aorta)and circulation (Circulation of blood through heart and major vessels) for illus.

superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

A branch of the gastroduodenal artery; it supplies blood to the proximal duodenum and the head of the pancreas, and it anastomoses with the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery.

superior phrenic artery

A branch of the thoracic aorta, supplying blood to the diaphragm.

superior rectal artery

The terminal branch of the inferior mesenteric artery; it supplies blood to the upper rectum.

superior thyroid artery

The first branch of the external carotid artery; it supplies blood to the surrounding muscles, the infrahyoid region of the neck, the larynx, and the thyroid gland, where it anastomoses with the inferior thyroid artery. Its branches include the infrahyoid, superior laryngeal, sternocleidomastoid, and cricothyroid arteries.

supraorbital artery

A branch of the ophthalmic artery; it supplies blood to the forehead, frontal sinus, and frontal scalp.

suprarenal artery

Adrenal artery.

suprascapular artery

A branch of the thyrocervical trunk (from the subclavian artery); it runs over the superior transverse scapular ligament in the scapular notch and supplies blood to the supraspinous and infraspinous fossae. Its branches include the acromial arteries and it anastomoses with the subscapular and transverse cervical arteries.

supratrochlear artery

A branch of the ophthalmic artery; it supplies blood to the frontal and medial scalp.

sural artery

A large branch of the popliteal artery that supplies blood to the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris muscles.

sylvian artery

The middle cerebral artery in the fissure of Sylvius.

temporal artery

The deep, the middle, or the superficial temporal artery.

terminal artery

End artery.

testicular artery

In males, a long slender branch of the abdominal aorta arising below the renal artery; it supplies blood to the testes, epididymis, cremasteric muscles, and lower ureters.
Synonym: spermatic artery; internal spermatic artery; See: aorta (Branches of aorta)for illus.

thoracic artery

The internal or the lateral thoracic artery.

thoracoacromial artery

A branch of the axillary artery; its branches run to the acromion, the clavicle, and the deltoid and pectoral muscles.

thoracodorsal artery

A branch of the subscapular artery; it supplies blood to the back wall of the thorax and the latissimus dorsi muscle.

thyroid artery

The inferior or the superior thyroid artery.

tibial artery

The anterior or the posterior tibial artery.

transverse cervical artery

A branch of the thyrocervical trunk (from the subclavian artery); it runs posteriorly through the lower neck. Its branches supply blood to the trapezius muscle and to the medial scapula.

transverse facial artery

A branch of the superficial temporal artery; it supplies blood to the parotid gland, parotid duct, masseter muscle, and overlying skin, and it anastomoses with the facial, masseteric, buccal, lacrimal, and infraorbital arteries.

tympanic artery

The anterior, the inferior, or the superficial tympanic artery, which are branches of the maxillary or the ascending pharyngeal arteries and which supply blood to the tympanic cavity.

ulnar artery

A branch of the brachial artery originating in the cubital fossa and ending in the deep palmar and superficial palmar arterial arches of the hand. It supplies blood to the forearm, the medial side of the wrist, the palm, and the hand, and its branches include the common interosseous, the anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent, the palmar carpal, and the dorsal carpal arteries.
See: brachial artery for illus.

umbilical artery

In the embryo, either of a pair of arteries that originate in the embryonic aortas (the dorsal aortas) and that carry blood from the embryo to the yolk sac and the chorion. In the adult, the lumen of the umbilical arteries disappears and the arteries become fibrous cords, called the medial umbilical ligaments, along the inner surface of the abdominal wall.

uterine artery

A branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery; it supplies blood to the upper vagina, cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes.

vaginal artery

A branch of the internal iliac; it supplies blood to the uterus and, with the uterine artery, forms the azygos artery of the vagina. The vaginal artery in females is a homologue of the inferior vesical artery in males.

vertebral artery

Abbreviation: VA
The first branch of the subclavian artery; it runs up the back of the neck via foramina in the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae and enters the cranial cavity through the foramen magnum. The right and left vertebral arteries merge along the ventral surface of the hindbrain to become the basilar artery. Branches of the vertebral artery include the anterior and posterior spinal arteries and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery.

The vertebral arteries carry about 20% of the brain's blood supply, feeding the brainstem, cerebellum, and most of the posterior cerebral hemispheres. Blockages of the vertebral circulation, e.g., an ischemic stroke, can produce problems in vegetative functions, such as consciousness and respiration, and problems of balance, hearing, motor coordination, and visual perception.

See: head (Arteries and veins of the head) and brain (Major arteries of the brain) for illus.; circle of Willis for illus.

vesical artery

The superior or the inferior vesical artery, which is a branch of the internal iliac artery and which supplies blood to the urinary bladder, the lower ureter, and in males, the ductus deferens.

vidian artery

The artery passing through the pterygoid canal.
Synonym: artery of the pterygoid canal