cutaneous leishmaniasis

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leishmaniasis

 [lēsh″mah-ni´ah-sis]
any disease due to infection with Leishmania.
American leishmaniasis forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis found in the Americas.
cutaneous leishmaniasis an endemic disease transmitted by the sandfly and characterized by the development of cutaneous papules that evolve into nodules, break down to form ulcers, and heal with scarring. It has been divided into Old World and New World forms, and the Old World form is subdivided into urban and rural types. The Old World form is caused by organisms of the Leishmania tropica complex; the New World form is caused by organisms of the L. mexicana and L. viannia complexes. It is endemic in the tropics and subtropics, and has been called by various names such as Aleppo boil, Delhi sore, Baghdad sore, and Oriental sore. Treatment consists of injections of pentavalent antimonial compounds. Antibiotics are used to combat secondary infection. Simple lesions may be cleaned, curetted, and left to heal.
cutaneous leishmaniasis, diffuse a rare chronic form of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania aethiopica in Ethiopia and Kenya, L. pifanoi in Venezuela, and species of the L. viannia and L. mexicana subclass in South and Central America, respectively, in which the lesions resemble those of nodular leprosy or of keloid. Pentavalent antimonial compounds are useful in some forms, while others are antimony-resistant. The prognosis for a complete cure is not good; relapses are common.
mucocutaneous leishmaniasis a disease endemic in South and Central America caused by Leishmania viannia, marked by ulceration of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and pharynx; widespread destruction of soft tissues in nasal and oral regions may occur. Called also espundia. Treatment consists of injections of pentavalent antimonial compounds.
leishmaniasis reci´divans a prolonged, relapsing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling tuberculosis of the skin; it may last for many years.
visceral leishmaniasis a chronic, highly fatal if untreated, infectious disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics, caused by the protozoon Leishmania donovani. Sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus are the vectors. Called also kala-azar.
Symptoms. Symptoms are usually vague, resembling those of incipient pulmonary tuberculosis; the disease is often confused with malaria. There may be fever, chills, malaise, cough, anorexia, anemia, and wasting. The Leishmania organisms multiply in the cells of the reticuloendothelial system, eventually causing hyperplasia of the cells, especially those of the liver and spleen. Diagnosis is confirmed by demonstration of the parasite.
Treatment. Two groups of compounds are recommended: pentavalent organic antimonials, such as sodium antimony gluconate, and aromatic diamidines, such as pentamidine, if the antimonials are ineffective. Rest is prescribed for patients debilitated by anemia. A decrease in white cell count (leukopenia) often accompanies the disease, and therefore the patient's resistance to secondary infections is lowered. In some cases transfusion may be necessary to bring blood values back to normal. The patient is given a well balanced diet and liberal amounts of fluids. Special mouth care and attention to the skin are necessary to avoid complications.

cu·ta·ne·ous leish·man·i·a·sis

infection with promastigotes (leptomonads) of Leishmania tropica and of Leishmaniasis major inoculated into the skin by the bite of an infected sandfly, Phlebotomus (commonly P. papatasii); it is endemic to parts of Asia Minor, northern Africa, and India, and is known by innumerable names, including tropical sores, tropical ulcers, and other indications of locality (for example, Aleppo, Baghdad, Delhi, or Jericho boil; Aden ulcer; Biskra button); the ulcer begins as a papule that enlarges to a nodule and then breaks down into an ulcer. Leishmanial cells are seen within histiocytes in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. Two distinctive clinical and epidemiologic diseases are recognized: the more common and widespread zoonotic rural disease with a moist acute form, caused by L. major, with reservoir rodent hosts, and an urban, anthroponotic, dry, chronic form of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmaniasis tropica, without a reservoir host, and now largely controlled. See: zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.
See also: diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis.

cutaneous leishmaniasis

a dermatological disease caused by the parasite Leishmania tropica, transmitted to humans by the bite of the sand fly. This form of leishmaniasis, characterized by ulcerative lesions, occurs primarily in Africa, Asia, and some Mediterranean countries. Oriental sore causes no systemic symptoms, but the sores are susceptible to secondary infections. Treatment options include infrared therapy and injection of ulcers with sodium antimony gluconate. Also called Aleppo boil, Delhi boil, Old World leishmaniasis, oriental sore, tropical sore. See also leishmaniasis.

cu·ta·ne·ous leish·ma·ni·a·sis

(kyū-tā'nē-ŭs lēsh'mă-nī'ă-sis)
Infection with promastigotes (leptomonads) of Leishmania tropica and of L. major inoculated into the skin by the bite of an infected sandfly, Phlebotomus (commonly P. papatasi); it is endemic in parts of the Middle East, northern Africa, and India. The ulcer begins as a papule that enlarges to a nodule and then breaks down into an ulcer. Two distinctive clinical and epidemiologic diseases are recognized, the more common and widespread zoonotic rural disease with a moist acute form, caused by L. major, with reservoir rodent hosts, and an urban, anthroponotic, dry, chronic form of leishmaniasis caused by L. tropica, without a reservoir host, and now largely controlled.
See: zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis
Synonym(s): Old World leishmaniasis, tropical sore.

cutaneous leishmaniasis

Infection of the skin with organisms of the Leishmania genus, such as Leishmania tropica . These are usually spread by the sandfly. The condition features deep crusting ulcers which may take years to heal. Also known as oriental sore. See also LEISHMANIASIS.

Alibert,

Jean Louis Marc, French dermatologist, 1768-1837.
Alibert-Bazin syndrome - heterogenous group of malignant lymphomas characterized by the expansion of a clone of CD4+ (or helper) memory cells, primarily affecting the skin. Synonym(s): Alibert disease III; Auspitz dermatosis; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; granuloma fungoides; mycosis fungoides
Alibert disease I - firm, thickened, irregularly shaped, pink or red growth that arises on and extends beyond an area of the skin that has been injured. Synonym(s): Alibert keloid; cicatricial keloid
Alibert disease II - infection caused by Leishmania tropica. Synonym(s): Baghdad boil; chiclero ulcer; cutaneous leishmaniasis; oriental sore
Alibert disease III - Synonym(s): Alibert-Bazin syndrome
Alibert keloid - Synonym(s): Alibert disease I