botulinum toxin


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toxin

 [tok´sin]
a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial toxins characteristically do not cause symptoms until after a period of incubation while the microbes multiply, or (as happens with botulism) the preformed toxin reaches and affects the tissue. Usually only a few toxin-producing agents are introduced into the body, and it is not until there are enough of them to overwhelm the leukocytes and other types of antibodies that symptoms occur. In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases.
bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, enterotoxins, neurotoxins, and toxic enzymes. See also toxin.
botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum,neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. They cause botulism by preventing release of acetylcholine by the cholinergic fibers. Type A is one of the most powerful poisons known; it is also used therapeutically by injection to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, to treat wrinkles of the upper face, and to reduce anal sphincter pressure to promote healing of chronic anal fissure. Type B is injected in treatment of cervical dystonia. Called also botulin.
cholera toxin an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae; a protein enterotoxin that binds to the membrane of enteric cells and stimulates the adenylate cyclase system, causing the hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions, resulting in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera.
clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulism (botulinus toxin), gas gangrene (gas gangrene toxin), and tetanus (tetanus toxin). In addition, C. difficile produces an exotoxin causing severe intestinal necrosis and C. perfringens produces exotoxins causing gas gangrene, intestinal necrosis, hemolysis, cardiotoxicity, and deoxyribonuclease and hyaluronidase activity, as well as an enterotoxin causing food poisoning.
Dick toxin erythrogenic toxin.
diphtheria toxin a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheria and related infections; it is an enzyme that activates transferase II of the mammalian protein synthesizing system.
diphtheria toxin for Schick test a sterile solution of the diluted, standardized toxic products of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; used as a dermal reactivity indicator in the schick test of immunity to diphtheria.
dysentery toxin any of various exotoxins produced by species of Shigella; the one formed by S. dysenteriae serotype 1 is a potent neurotoxin with hemorrhagic and paralytic properties.
erythrogenic toxin a bacterial toxin from certain strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that produces an erythematous reaction when injected intradermally and is responsible for the rash in scarlet fever.
extracellular toxin exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin an exotoxin that causes gas gangrene; there are at least 10 types produced by Clostridium perfringens and others produced by C. noriyi and C. septicum.
streptococcal toxin a mixture of exotoxins formed by Streptococcus pyogenes.
tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin).

botulinum toxin (BTX),

an extremely potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive, strictly anaerobic bacillus; causes botulism when the preformed toxin is ingested in previously contaminated food products. The toxin inhibits release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.

botulinum toxin

[boch′əlī′nəm]
Etymology: L, botulus, sausage; Gk, toxikon, poison
any of a group of potent bacterial toxins produced by different strains of Clostridium botulinum. It may be used therapeutically for blepharospasm or cosmetically to relax facial wrinkles. The strains are sometimes identified by letters of the alphabet, such as A, B, or C. Also called Botox, botulinus toxin.

botulinum toxin

Medspeak
50-kD neurotoxin with 7 distinct serotypes, produced by strains of Clostridium botulinum, which are billed as the most potent neurotoxins known; type C1 has an LD50 of 32 ng; type A, BTX-A (the cosmetic Botox) has an LD50 of 40-56 ng. 

Clinical findings
Nausea, diarrhoea, weakness, dizziness, respiratory paralysis, death.

bot·u·li·num tox·in

(bot-yū-lī'nŭm tok'sin)
An extremely potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive, strictly anaerobic bacillus; causes botulism when the preformed toxin is ingested in previously contaminated food products. The toxin inhibits release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.

botulinum toxin

A powerful EXOTOXIN produced by the organism Clostridium botulinum which, in carefully controlled minute dosage, has been found useful in the treatment of an increasing range of conditions. It is given, often with excellent effect in squint (STRABISMUS) caused by overactive eye muscles; uncontrollable spasm of the eyelid muscles (blepharospasm); NYSTAGMUS; sixth nerve palsy; hyperlacrimation; drooling; spastic club foot (dynamic equinus foot deformity) in children with cerebral palsy; tennis elbow; facial spasm; excessive sweating of the armpits and palms; gustatory sweating; vaginismus; post-stroke spasticity; TORTICOLLIS; WRITER'S CRAMP; other occupational cramps; essential hand tremor; BRUXISM; tics; swallowing difficulty (dysphagia); tension headaches; MIGRAINE; backache; and anal fissure. The toxin can also be used to cause a temporary deliberate drooping of the upper lid (blepharoptosis) as an alternative to sewing the lids together (tarsorrhaphy) for the treatment of corneal ulceration and other conditions. The preparations has also become a popular and, for the providers, lucrative remedy for the cosmetic removal of the appearance of wrinkles.

Botulinum toxin (botulin)

A neurotoxin made by Clostridium botulinum; causes paralysis in high doses, but is used medically in small, localized doses to treat disorders associated with involuntary muscle contraction and spasms, in addition to strabismus.

botulinum toxin 

A poisonous substance which paralyses muscles and leads to inhibition of the release of acetylcholine from presynaptic neuromuscular terminals. The effect can last for weeks after being injected into a muscle. It is used as an alternative or addition to extraocular muscle surgery in the management of strabismus. It is also sometimes used in the management of blepharospasm. Example: In esotropia, the medial rectus muscle is injected to paralyse its action. See chemodenervation.

botulinum toxin

a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum; causes botulism. Eight antigenically distinct types are recognized: A, B, C, C2, D, E, F and G.
References in periodicals archive ?
Botulinum toxin injection in neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: Results and experience using a ultrasound-guided approach.
Severe amphethamine-induced bruxism: Treatment with botulinum toxin.
A meta-analysis of urinary frequency performed by Duthie and colleagues (2011) favored treatment with botulinum toxin to placebo for up to 12 weeks.
Adverse reactions to the botulinum toxin include ptosis keratitis epiphora diplopia and ocular irritation.
Most misconceptions about botulinum toxin come from the lack of understanding about where and how it can be used," says co-founder of cosmetic treatment centre Smoothline, Dr Snozzi.
By injecting at the predetermined sites, botulinum toxin brings about reduction in gummy smile by weakening the contractibility of upper lip elevator muscles and also marked effacement of nasolabial fold.
Weber A, Heger S, Sinkgraven R et al: Psychosocial aspects of patients with focal hyperhidrosis: Marked reduction of social phobia, anxiety and depression and increased quality of life after treatment with botulinum toxin A.
Also, there are a few side effects of botulinum toxin.
Botulinum toxin type A in treatment of bilateral primary axillary hyperhidrosis: randomised, parallel group, double blind, placebo controlled trial.
The newly discovered toxin does raise some concern that botulinum toxin could turn up in antibiotic-resistant enterococci, perhaps stemming from gene transfer in the gut of an animal harboring both C.
The company's initial focus is on developing daxibotulinumtoxinA, the company's highly purified botulinum toxin, for a broad spectrum of aesthetic and therapeutic indications.
Botulinum toxin type A injects 100 units in a vial,