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alcohol

 [al´kah-hol]
1. any organic compound containing the hydroxy (-OH) functional group except those in which the OH group is attached to an aromatic ring, which are called phenols. Alcohols are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether the carbon atom to which the OH group is attached is bonded to one, two, or three other carbon atoms and as monohydric, dihydric, or trihydric according to whether they contain one, two, or three OH groups; the latter two are called diols and triols, respectively.
2. an official preparation of ethanol, used as a disinfectant, solvent, and preservative, and applied topically as a rubbing compound, disinfectant, astringent, hemostatic, and coolant.
absolute alcohol dehydrated a.
benzyl alcohol a colorless liquid used as a bacteriostatic in solutions for injection and as a topical local anesthetic.
dehydrated alcohol an extremely hygroscopic, transparent, colorless, volatile liquid used as a solvent and injected into nerves and ganglia for relief of pain. Called also absolute a.
denatured alcohol ethanol made unfit for human consumption by the addition of substances known as denaturants. Although it should never be taken internally, denatured alcohol is widely used on the skin as a disinfectant.
ethyl alcohol (grain alcohol) ethanol.
isopropyl alcohol a transparent, volatile colorless liquid used as a solvent and disinfectant and applied topically as an antiseptic; called also isopropanol. Diluted with water to approximately 70 per cent strength, it is called isopropyl rubbing alcohol and is used as a rubbing compound.
methyl alcohol methanol.
pantothenyl alcohol dexpanthenol.
phenethyl alcohol (phenylethyl alcohol) a colorless liquid used as an antimicrobial agent in pharmaceuticals.
rubbing alcohol a preparation of acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and ethanol, used as a rubefacient.
wood alcohol methanol.

al·co·hol

(al'kŏ-hol),
1. One of a series of organic chemical compounds in which a hydrogen (H) attached to carbon is replaced by a hydroxyl (OH); alcohols react with acids to form esters and with alkali metals to form alcoholates. For individual alcohols not listed here, see specific name.
2. made from sugar, starch, and other carbohydrates by fermentation with yeast, and synthetically from ethylene or acetylene. It has been used in beverages and as a solvent, vehicle, and preservative; medicinally, it is used externally as a rubefacient, coolant, and disinfectant, and has been used internally as an analgesic, stomachic, sedative, and antipyretic. Synonym(s): ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, rectified spirit, wine spirit
3. The azeotropic mixture of CH3CH2OH and water (92.3% by weight of ethanol at 15.56°C).
[Ar. al, the, + kohl, fine antimonial powder, the term being applied first to a fine powder, then to anything impalpable (spirit)]

alcohol

/al·co·hol/ (al´kah-hol)
1. any of a class of organic compounds containing the hydroxyl (—OH) functional group except those in which the OH group is attached to an aromatic ring (phenols). Alcohols are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether the carbon atom to which the OH group is attached is bonded to one, two, or three other carbon atoms and as monohydric, dihydric, or trihydric according to whether they contain one, two, or three OH groups; the latter two are called diols and triols, respectively.
3. a pharmaceutical preparation of ethanol, used as a disinfectant, solvent, and preservative; applied topically as a rubefacient, disinfectant, astringent, hemostatic, and coolant; and used internally in sclerotherapy and in the treatment of pain, of spasticity, and of poisoning by methyl alcohol or ethylene glycol.

absolute alcohol  dehydrated a.
benzyl alcohol  a colorless liquid used as a bacteriostatic in solutions for injection and topically as a local anesthetic.
cetostearyl alcohol  a mixture of stearyl alcohol and cetyl alcohol used as an emulsifier.
cetyl alcohol  a solid alcohol used as an emulsifying and stiffening agent.
dehydrated alcohol  an extremely hygroscopic, transparent, colorless, volatile liquid, 100 per cent strength ethanol; used as a solvent and injected into nerves and ganglia for relief of pain.
denatured alcohol  ethanol rendered unfit for internal use by addition of methanol or acetone.
ethyl alcohol , grain alcohol ethanol.
isopropyl alcohol  a transparent, colorless, volatile liquid, used as a solvent and disinfectant, and as a topical antiseptic.
isopropyl rubbing alcohol  a preparation containing between 68 and 72 per cent isopropyl alcohol in water, used as a rubefacient.
methyl alcohol  a clear, colorless, flammable liquid, CH3OH, used as a solvent. Ingestion may cause blindness or death.
polyvinyl alcohol  a water-soluble synthetic polymer used as a viscosity-increasing agent in pharmaceuticals and as a lubricant and protectant in ophthalmic preparations.
n- propyl alcohol  a colorless liquid with an alcohol-like odor; used as a solvent.
rubbing alcohol  a preparation of acetone, the alcohol denaturant methyl isobutyl ketone, and 68.5 to 71.5 per cent ethanol; used as a rubefacient.
stearyl alcohol  a solid alcohol prepared from stearic acid and used as an emollient and emulsifier.
wood alcohol  methanol.

alcohol

(ăl′kə-hôl′, -hŏl′)
n.
1. Any of a series of hydroxyl compounds, the simplest of which are derived from saturated hydrocarbons, have the general formula CnH2n+1OH, and include ethanol and methanol.
2. A colorless volatile flammable liquid, C2H5OH, synthesized or obtained by fermentation of sugars and starches and widely used, either pure or denatured, as a solvent and in drugs, cleaning solutions, explosives, and intoxicating beverages. Also called ethanol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol.
3. Intoxicating beverages containing ethanol considered as a group: the national consumption of alcohol.

alcohol

[al′kəhôl]
Etymology: Ar alkohl, subtle essence
1 a preparation containing at least 92.3% and not more than 93.8% by weight of ethyl alcohol, used as a topical antiseptic and solvent.
2 a clear, colorless, volatile liquid that is miscible with water, chloroform, or ether, obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates with yeast.
3 a compound derived from a hydrocarbon by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with an equal number of hydroxyl groups. Depending on the number of hydroxyl groups, alcohols are classified as monohydric alcohol, dihydric alcohol, and trihydric alcohol. alcoholic, adj., n.

alcohol

Chemistry Any of a broad category of organic chemicals containing one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups with a minimal tendency to ionise; alcohols can be liquids, semisolids or solids at room temperature
Common alcohols Ethanol, or CH3CH2OH (“drinking” alcohol); methanol, or CH3OH (wood/grain alcohol, which can cause blindness and CNS damage); propanol, or (CH3)2CHOH (“rubbing” alcohol).
Clinical medicine Once consumed, the commonly ingested alcohol, ethyl alcohol (ethanol),  peaks in the blood in ±30 mins; ±1 hour is needed to eliminate each 10g of alcohol ingested; blood alcohol levels reliably indicate the amount of ethanol “on board”; alcohol consumption may relieve anxiety for several hours, but, long-term, may aggravate or provoke anxiety and panic disorders.
Health benefits of As little as 1 drink/week reduces risk of stroke.
Ref range Negative; serum levels of >0.05% is enough to cause impairment.
Metabolism
• Absorption 20% of alcohol is absorbed in the stomach, 80% in the upper small intestine; absorbed slower if food present in stomach, faster on empty stomach, faster if beverage is carbonated (e.g., champagne). Optimal alcohol absorption occurs when gastric alcohol is 10–20%; if higher, gastric mucus secretion delays emptying and absorption. Absorption is usually complete in 3 hours.
• Distribution Alcohol distributes in water, not fat; women and overweight people have a lower volume of distribution and thus have a higher blood alcohol concentration (BAC).
• Rule of thumb One unit of alcohol increases the BAC by ±15 ml/100ml in men and ±20 ml/100ml in women. The Widmark equation provides a crude estimate of peak blood alcohol concentration that can be expected after ingesting a known amount of alcohol.
• Elimination Alcohol is eliminated by all routes, including 5% in the lungs and 5% in the urine; 90% is metabolised via hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase to acetaldehyde and via aldehyde dehydrogenase to acetate, which is converted into CO2 and water.

alcohol

Chemistry Any of a broad category of organic chemicals containing one or more hydroxyl––OH groups with a minimal tendency to ionize; alcohols can be liquids, semisolids or solids at room temperature Common alcohols Ethanol or CH3CH2OH/'drinking' alcohol, methanol–CH3OH, wood/grain alcohol, which can cause blindness and CNS damage, propanol–(CH3)2CHOH, 'rubbing' alcohol. See Absolute alcohol, Perillyl alcohol Clinical medicine The commonly ingested alcohol, ethyl alcohol–ethanol, once consumed, peaks in the blood in ±30 mins; ±1 hr is needed to eliminate each 10g of alcohol ingested; blood alcohol levels reliably indicate the amount of ethanol 'on board'; alcohol consumption may relieve anxiety for several hrs, but, long-term, may aggravate or provoke anxiety and panic disorders Health benefits of As little as 1 drink/wk ↓ risk of stroke Ref rangeNegative; serum levels of > 0. 05% is sufficient to cause impairment

al·co·hol

(al'kŏ-hol)
1. One of a series of organic chemical compounds in which a hydrogen (H) attached to carbon is replaced by a hydroxyl (OH); alcohols react with acids to form esters and with alkali metals to form alcoholates.
2. Ethanol, C2H5OH, made from carbohydrates by fermentation and synthetically from ethylene or acetylene. It has been used in beverages and as a solvent, vehicle, and preservative; medicinally, it is used externally as a rubefacient, coolant, and disinfectant, and internally as an analgesic, stomachic, and sedative.
Synonym(s): ethanol, ethyl alcohol.
3. The azeotropic mixture of CH3CH2OH and water (92.3% by weight of ethanol).
[Ar. al, the, + kohl, fine antimonial powder, the term being applied first to a fine powder, then to anything impalpable (spirit)]

alcohol

A colourless volatile liquid obtained by fermenting sugars or starches with yeast and used as a solvent, a skin cleaner and hardener, and as an intoxicating drink. Also known as ethyl alcohol or ethanol.
Alcoholclick for a larger image
Fig. 21 Alcohol . Molecular structure of an alcohol.

alcohol

an organic molecule in which a hydrogen atom of a hydrocarbon is replaced by a hydroxyl group (OH). See Fig. 21 .

alcohol

ethyl alcohol (ethanol) in alcoholic drinks is one of a group of organic compounds. The anxiety-reducing effects of alcohol can improve confidence and performance, particularly in sports where fine motor control is required, e.g. by snooker players or marksmen. In many sports, particularly team sports, alcohol intake is a part of the culture. Because of the well-known diuretic properties, athletes should be advised against alcohol consumption when fluid replacement is a priority, and alcohol can impair both performance and recovery after exercise. It is banned in some sports (e.g. motor racing, skiing).

alcohol

; ethanol; spirit ethyl alcohol (CH3CH2OH) used as a clinical solvent, medicament carrier (e.g. Betadine in spirit) and rapid-acting surface disinfectant

alcohol,

n a chemical compound formed when a hydroxyl radical connects to an aliphatic chain carbon, thus replacing a hydrogen molecule. Has the basic formula CnH2n+1OH. Ethanol and methanol are examples of alcohols.
alcohols, terpenic (tur·peˑ·nik alˑ·k·hlzˈ),
n.pl compounds consisting of terpene chains attached to hydroxyl groups, may exist as monoterpenols, diterpenols, or sesquiterpenols. Responsible for the gentle floral smells of certain essential oils. See also diterpenols, mono-terpenols, and sesquiterpenols.

antiseptic 

An agent that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria. This term is generally restricted to agents that are sufficiently non-toxic for superficial application to living tissues. These include the preservatives for eye drops and contact lens solutions. Examples of antiseptics are alcohol, benzalkonium chloride, cetrimide, chlorbutanol, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, thimerosal (or thiomersalate). Other agents that are too toxic to be applied to living tissues are called disinfectants and are used to sterilize instruments and apparatus. See disinfection; ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid; neutralization; sterilization.

al·co·hol

(al'kŏ-hol)
Agent made from sugar, starch, and other carbohydrates by fermentation with yeast, and synthetically from ethylene or acetylene; used in beverages and as a solvent, vehicle, and preservative; medicinally, used externally and internally. Known chemically as ethanol.
[Ar. al, the, + kohl, fine antimonial powder, the term being applied first to a fine powder, then to anything impalpable (spirit)]

alcohol (al´kəhôl),

n a transparent, colorless liquid that is mobile and volatile. Alcohols are organic compounds formed from hydrocarbons by the substitution of hydroxyl radicals for the same number of hydrogen atoms.
alcohol, absolute,
n an alcohol containing no more than 1% H2O.
alcohol abuse,
n the frequent intake of large amounts of alcohol, typically distinguished by decreased health and physical and social functioning impairment. See also alcoholism.
alcohol blood level,
alcohol dependence,
n a mental and physical need to consume alcohol in order to prevent the pains of withdrawal and obtain certain results; causes a limited capacity to control actions during consumption of alcohol. See also alcohol abuse.
alcohol hallucinosis
n a complication of the last stage of withdrawal from alcohol, occurring within 48 hours of sudden decrease or halt of increased consumption after a lengthy period of dependence. It is indicated by severely impairing visual and auditory hallucinations similar to schizophrenia symptoms that may persist for weeks or months.
alcohol withdrawal delirium,
n a complication of the last stage of withdrawal from alcohol, occurring within 1 week of sudden decrease or halt of increased consumption after a lengthy period of dependence; indicated by dramatic auditory, visual, and tactile hallucinations, confusion, delusions, disorientation, tremors, nervous actions, sweating, and rapid heartbeat. Also called
DTs or
delirium tremens.

alcohol

1. any organic compound containing the hydroxy (−OH) functional group except those in which the OH group is attached to an aromatic ring, which are called phenols. Alcohols are classified as primary, secondary or tertiary according to whether the carbon atom to which the OH group is attached is bonded to one, two or three other carbon atoms and as monohydric, dihydric or trihydric according to whether they contain one, two or three −OH groups; the latter two are called diols and triols, respectively.
2. common name for ethyl alcohol (ethanol). See also alcoholic.

absolute alcohol
ethyl alcohol free from water and impurities.
complex plant alcohol
includes cicutoxin, oenanthotoxin, tremetol, all toxic, causing heavy mortalities and signs including incoordination, tremor, convulsions, vomiting.
denatured alcohol
ethyl alcohol made unfit for consumption by the addition of substances known as denaturants. Although it should never be taken internally, denatured alcohol is widely used on the skin as a cooling agent and skin disinfectant.
ethoxylate alcohol detergents
alcohols containing an ethyl radical with an attached oxygen group; used in the treatment and prevention of ruminal bloat.
ethyl alcohol
a transparent, colorless, mobile, volatile liquid miscible with water, ether or chloroform, and obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrate with yeast. It is the major ingredient of alcoholic beverages consumed by humans. Called also ethanol and grain alcohol. It is used in veterinary medicine in the preparation of mixtures for topical application and for skin disinfection.
grain alcohol
see ethyl alcohol (above).
isopropyl alcohol
a transparent, volatile colorless liquid used as a rubbing compound. Called also isopropanol.
methyl alcohol
a mobile, colorless liquid used as a solvent. Called also wood alcohol or methanol. It is a useful fuel, but is poisonous if taken internally. Consumption may lead to blindness or death.
alcohol nerve block
permanent anesthesia to a part can be produced by blocking the relevant nerve with isopropyl alcohol. Adverse effects are likely due to continued loss of sensation and motor power.
alcohol poisoning
in animals this does not present the social problems that it does in humans even in cattle and sheep fed on brewer's grains and distiller's solubles. Ethyl alcohol is produced in some feeds which are fermented accidentally, but overt alcohol poisoning is not recorded. Carbohydrate engorgement is a more likely occurrence. Isopropyl alcohol is an end product of ketone body degradation in the rumen in cattle and does cause signs of inebriation in cows with nervous acetonemia.
Small companion animals are sometimes exposed to toxic levels of ethyl alcohol by owners and it may be readily consumed. Excessive amounts can lead to vomiting, various levels of central nervous system depression, including excitement, seizures and respiratory depression.
wood alcohol
methyl alcohol.

Patient discussion about alcohol

Q. Alcoholism Steve 26 yr old suffered with bi-polar and the related drugs that eventually lead to his over dose. He died in where he felt a connection to the intellectual environment. After suffering with Steve for so many years, I am convinced that this disease is genetic; his grandmother also suffered with drug addiction and a mental disorder, but had that gene that must have been inherited by Steve. Any one in the area of mental health and genetic engineering Research? We want to set up or get involved with public awareness on the devastation of this disease which kills 100+ thousands in this country each year; yet society treats it as a social problem -- The advancement of mental research has been slow almost medieval -- Please help. No one, no family should have to suffer the way my beautiful son suffered and who had so much to give to humanity.

A. I,m going to tell you a story: I was born in Newark,New Jersey in 1956,my sister was born 1953.Me an my sister were both born with asthma.my mother liked to party alot with her friends,an my father drank at work sometimes an when he got home,every day at 5pm.One day when i was 6yrs old,my sister got sick(asthma attack). I remember my grand mother trying to get my mother to take my sister to the hospital,to call my father,finally when my sister almost stopped breath she was taken to the hospital-it was to late.If my parents had of been sober my sister would be here to day,This was my first exsperiance with ALCOHOL---growing up was not easy when i was young i used to go hide when my father came home(IT WAS VERY BAD) my father used to come home from work,get drunk an start to holla at my mother if denner was not the way he liked--he would holla,yell for no reason most of the time(THIS MAN WAS EVIL)--in those days people did not care about addiction like now-he is dead thank god?

Q. ALCOHOLISM what effect does it have on the digestive system?

A. Alcohol may increase the risk of developing cancers of the digestive system, including mouth, esophagus, as well as large bowel cancer, pancreas and liver.

Alcohol is well known to damage the pancreas and the liver, important parts of the digestive tract.

You may read more here:
www.mayoclinic.com/health/alcohol/SC00024

Q. alcoholism I am 17 years old and I love to drink alcohol. I go out partying and drinking every night with my friends. How can I tell if I am an alcoholic or just like to drink?

A. At age 17, it may seem like fun to go out and party and get drunk every night, but its symptomatic that you have let your self cross over the line that leads to self destruction. You have already admitted that you are worried about becoming an alcoholic and being referred to as a "drunk". If that bothers you, you had better get help or stop. If it doesn't bother you that people see you as "a drunk", then there's no point in anyone making any further replies to your post. Sooner or later, something bad will surely happen, that may make you wise up. But for many alcoholics which includes me, they have to hit absolute "rock bottom". Your life will surely go "south" if you keep it up, until you either wise up because of the hangovers, or you get to the bitter end of your rope. The end of the rope could be any of the following: jail, death, car wreck, lose job, lose spouse through divorce, get thrown out of the house, get sick from heart disease, beco

More discussions about alcohol
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