A confidence level can be determined for the apparent change by performing a bootstrap analysis.
Once the estimator of the magnitude of the change has been selected, the bootstrap analysis can be performed.
My question is whether we can identify differences among bootstraps that should lead lawyers and citizens to reject bootstraps of particular types.
Part IV turns to the question of distinguishing problematic bootstraps from other bootstraps, based either on substantive distinctions or on the purposes of the bootstrapper.
This bootstrap distribution is then used to estimate characteristics (e.
MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] = the standard error found by calculating the SD of the bootstrap estimates of [theta], and
Van Auken observed a "serious gap in the literature" (in apparent concurrence with the authors of this paper) and stated that "research on the use of bootstrap
financing is limited" (Van Auken, 2005, p.
It is possible, however, to estimate empirically the sampling distributions of any test statistic using the bootstrap
technique (Efron, 1979).
Resampling methods such as the bootstrap
can also be used to estimate confidence limits for statistics.
If it is, then bootstraps
are even more pervasive than Benjamin says, and the hard definitional project lies in separating the good bootstraps
(like compliance with licensing requirements) from the bad.
One of the methods Jackson employed, and the one which appeared most promising, used a bootstrap
resampling technique to provide confidence intervals around estimates of eigenvalues and eigenvector loadings.
In essence, the bootstrap
method substitutes a huge number of simple calculations, performed by a computer, for the complicated mathematical formulas that play key roles in conventional statistical theory.