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bloodless surgerySurgery performed without use (or with minimal use) of allogeneic transfusions and favouring pre-donation of blood from a patient for autologous transfusion during surgery, if needed. Bloodless surgery is of particular interest in the surgical management of Jehovah’s Witnesses who refuse blood transfusions on religious grounds, in whom severe intraoperative anaemia is the norm, but survivable.
Cardiac catheterisation (laser and balloon angioplasty, radiofrequency ablation), atherectomy, imaging, haemodynamic evaluation, minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopy, lithotripsy, radiosurgery, stereotactic surgery), or other methods (e.g., pulse oximetry) that minimise the loss of blood.
Blood salvage manoeuvres
Preoperative autologous donation, intraoperative blood salvage, intraoperative haemodilution, volume expanders and other blood-conservation techniques, laser coagulators, exogenous erythropoietin.