When the untreated netting material was used, 7% of the infected sand flies took a blood meal
and 25 % of the noninfected sand flies took a blood meal
as shown in the Table.
were detected by using PCR with universal vertebrate primers targeting the 12S ribosomal RNA gene (10).
Mixed blood meals
, presumably caused by bouts of interrupted feeding, have been reported from other studies on ixodid ticks using host blood meal
identification, at similar rates to those reported here (15,16).
analysis by ELISA on blood-fed female mosquitoes showed that 3% fed on sheep blood, 6% on both dog and human blood and 91% on human blood alone, hence, a human blood index of 0.
I learned about this blood meal
from Texas' renowned gardener, Dr.
Bed bugs will crawl a substantial distance to obtain a blood meal
gambiae mosquitoes to take their first blood meal
and get infective holds true (9), then a female mosquito will survive for an additional 13 days under laboratory conditions.
Given these observations, we hypothesized that sufficient host proteins remained in flat ticks for identification of blood meal
by using proteins instead of DNA.
In the laboratory at Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), the mosquito samples were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for determination of both blood meal
henselae in SGs after a second blood meal
, and transmission of B.
Organic produce, which is fertilized with components such as composted manure, blood meal
and bone meal, depends heavily on animal products for its mineral nutrition.
The blood meal
was not added to the mixture that was used for the 3/4 inch germinating blocks nor for some plants such as impatiens that do not need the extra nitrogen.