blood in urine


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blood in urine

Vox populi Hematuria

blood in urine

See HAEMATURIA.

blood

the red fluid that circulates through the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins carrying nutrients and oxygen to the body tissues and metabolites away from them. It consists of a yellow, protein-rich fluid, the plasma, and the cellular elements including leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets. It has a high viscosity and osmotic tension and clots on exposure to air and to damaged tissue. It has an essential role in the maintenance of fluid balance.
In an emergency, blood cells and antibodies carried in the blood are brought to a point of infection, or blood-clotting substances are carried to a break in a blood vessel. The blood carries hormones from the endocrine glands to the organs they influence. And it helps in the regulation of body temperature by carrying excess heat from the interior of the body to the surface layers of the skin, where the heat is dissipated to the surrounding air. See also bloody.

arterial blood
oxygenated blood in the arterial side of the circulation between the cardiac ventricles and the capillaries.
blood buffers
substances which enable the blood to absorb much acidity without significant change in pH. The principal ones are the bicarbonate and hemoglobin buffers.
central blood
blood from the pulmonary venous system; sometimes applied to splanchnic blood, or blood obtained from chambers of the heart or from bone marrow.
central venous blood
unoxygenated blood collected centrally from the right atrium or venae cavae.
citrated blood
blood treated with sodium citrate to prevent its coagulation.
blood clotting cascade
see coagulation cascade.
cord blood
that contained in the umbilical vessels at the time of delivery of the fetus.
defibrinated blood
whole blood from which fibrin has been separated during the clotting process.
extracorporeal blood flow
see extracorporeal circulation.
blood in feces
see melena.
blood islet
aggregates of splanchnic mesoderm on the surface of the yolk sac and allantois; the first blood cells in the embryo.
blood lactate
this estimation has good predictive value in a number of diseases, e.g. intestinal obstruction in horses.
blood in milk
appears as clots or as diffuse red tint. Common only in recently calved cows or after trauma. Of no disease significance but renders the milk unsuitable for sale.
Enlarge picture
Blood clots in pink milk. By permission from Blowey RW, Weaver AD, Diseases and Disorders of Cattle, Mosby, 1997
occult blood
that present in such small amounts as to be detectable only by chemical tests or by spectroscopic or microscopic examination. See also occult blood test.
blood osmolality
see serum osmolality.
peripheral blood
that obtained from the circulation remote from the heart; the blood in the systemic circulation.
selective blood agar
see blood agar.
shunted blood
blood which is not oxygenated in the lung because it passes through unaerated tissue.
sludged blood
blood in which the red cells have become aggregated into clumps and is most marked where the flow rate is slowest, i.e. in the capillaries.
blood solutes
see individual elements, metabolic products, hormones and the like.
stiff blood agar
see blood agar.
blood substitutes
synthetic substances that may be used in place of blood or its components include dextran, hydroxyethyl starch, polyvinylpyrrolidone, gelatin and perfluorocarbon.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
see urea nitrogen.
blood urea test
see urea nitrogen.
blood in urine
venous blood
blood which has passed through the capillaries and discharged its oxygen load to tissues and relieved the tissue load of carbon dioxide by absorbing it, and is on its way to the lungs to reverse these processes; is dark red in color due to the high concentration of reduced hemoglobin.
blood volume expanders
are used in the treatment of shock to restore tissue perfusion. Various fluids including whole blood, plasma, crystalloids and colloids may be used.
blood in vomitus
whole blood
that from which none of the elements has been removed, especially that drawn from a selected donor under aseptic conditions, containing citrate ion or heparin, and used as a blood replenisher.

urine

the fluid containing water and waste products which are secreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder and discharged by way of the urethra. See also urinary.

urine albumin
urine alkalinization
increasing the pH of urine by the administration of alkalinizing agents such as sodium bicarbonate; used to increase the solubility of cystine in the management of cystine urolithiasis in dogs.
blood in urine
urine burn
see urine scald (below).
urine calculi
urine casts
see urinary casts.
urine cells
see urine sediment (below).
urine chromogens
urine concentration test
see water deprivation test.
urine creatine
urine crystals
urine drinking
in farm animals is observed in nutritional deficiency of sodium chloride.
urine flow
the rate of flow may be reduced—oliguria, absent—anuria, or increased—polyuria.
urine flowmetry
measure of urine flow rates.
urine glucose
urine hemoglobin
urine immunoglobulins
may be found in small amounts in normal animals. Increased amounts occur in renal disease due to disruption of glomeruli and defects in tubular reabsorption.
urine indican
urine ketones
urine marking
metastable urine
calcium oxalate crystals are maintained and can enlarge in urine oversaturated with these minerals.
urine methemoglobin
urine myoglobin
urine osmolality
a measure of the number of dissolved particles per unit of water in urine. See also osmolality.
oversaturated urine
calcium and oxalate crystals will spontaneously precipitate, grow and aggregate.
urine peritonitis
caused by the presence of urine in the peritoneal cavity as in rupture of the bladder.
urine pH
the normal range varies with the animal species. Herbivores have a higher pH than carnivores because of differences in the diet. Alterations occur with changes in acid-base balance and infection in the urinary tract.
urine protein
pus in urine
see pyuria.
red urine
residual urine
urine remaining in the bladder after urination; seen in bladder outlet obstruction (as by prostatic hypertrophy) and disorders affecting nerves controlling bladder function.
urine sample collection
midstream collection is standard; for culture the sample should be collected by catheter or suprapubic, percutaneous needle insertion into the bladder.
urine scald
scalding of the perineal area, and sometimes the hindlegs, by urine. It may be the result of urinary incontinence or the animal's inability to assume normal posture when urinating, i.e. paresis or paralysis of the hindlimbs. In rabbits it is caused by poor cage accommodation and frequent wetting of the area with urine. Secondary infection of the dermatitis is common.
urine sediment
a centrifuged deposit suitable for microscopic examination for the presence of cells, casts, bacteria, crystals, etc.
urine specific gravity
see specific gravity.
subcutaneous urine aggregation
urine leaking from a damaged urethra collects in a subcutaneous site.