ammonia

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ammonia

 [ah-mo´nyah]
a colorless alkaline gas, NH3, with a pungent odor and acrid taste, and soluble in water.
ammonia N 13 ammonia in which a portion of the molecules are labeled with 13N; used in positron emission tomography of the cardiovascular system, brain, and liver.

am·mo·ni·a

(ă-mō'nē-ă),
A colorless volatile gas, NH3, highly soluble in water, capable of forming a weak base, which combines with acids to form ammonium compounds.
[fr. L. sal ammoniacus, salt of Amen (G. Ammōn), obtained near a temple of Amen in Libya]

ammonia

/am·mo·nia/ (ah-mōn´yah) a colorless alkaline gas with a pungent odor and acrid taste, NH3. Ammonia labeled with 13N is used in positron emission tomography of the cardiovascular system, brain, and liver.

ammonia (NH3)

[amō′nē·a/]
Etymology: Gk, ammoniakos, salt of Ammon, Egyptian god
a colorless pungent gas produced by the decomposition of nitrogenous organic matter. Some of its many uses are as a fertilizer, an aromatic stimulant, a detergent, and an emulsifier.

ammonia

Biochemistry
An irritating, water-soluble, strongly basic, colourless gas, which is lighter than air.
 
Industry
Ammonia (NH3) is used in explosives, fertilisers, refrigerants and household cleaning solutions.
 
Physiology
NH3 is produced in the liver, intestine and kidneys as an end-product of protein metabolism; the liver converts ammonia into urea, which is then excreted by the kidneys; in liver disease this conversion is decreased, resulting in increased serum ammonia. Serial measurement of ammonia is used to follow progression of hepatic encephalopathy in Reye syndrome and other conditions.
 
Ref range
15–49 µg/dL.
 
Abnormal values
Increased hepatic coma, Reye syndrome, severe CHF, GI haemorrhage, erythroblastosis fetalis, drugs (e.g., diuretics and antibiotics).

ammonia

NH3 Physiology NH3 is produced in the liver, intestine, and kidneys as endproduct of protein metabolism; the liver converts ammonia into urea, which is then excreted by the kidneys; in liver disease this conversion is diminished, resulting in ↑ serum ammonia; serial measurement of ammonia is used to follow the progression of hepatic encephalopathy in Reye syndrome and other conditions Ref range 15-49 µg/dL Abnormal values ↑ Hepatic coma, Reye syndrome, severe CHF, GI hemorrhage, erythroblastosis fetalis, drugs–eg, diuretics and antibiotics. See Hepatic encephalopathy.

am·mo·nia

(NH3) (ă-mō'nē-ă)
A colorless volatile gas, NH3, highly soluble in water, capable of forming a weak base, which combines with acids to form ammonium compounds.
[fr. L. sal ammoniacus, salt of Amen (G. Ammōn), obtained near a temple of Amen in Libya]

ammonia

A substance produced when AMINO ACIDS are broken down. Ammonia is converted by the liver into urea and excreted in the urine. Urea can be broken down by bacterial enzymes to release ammonia. This may be a cause of nappy rash in babies.

ammonia

a colourless gas, which is the main form in which nitrogen is utilized in living cells. Formula: NH3.

am·mo·nia

(ă-mō'nē-ă)
A colorless volatile gas, NH3, highly soluble in water, capable of forming a weak base, which combines with acids to form ammonium compounds.
[fr. L. sal ammoniacus, salt of Amen (G. Ammōn), obtained near a temple of Amen in Libya]

ammonia,

n a colorless aromatic gas consisting of nitrogen and hydrogen, produced by the decomposition of nitrogenous organic matter. Some of its many uses are as an aromatic stimulant, a detergent, and an emulsifier.
ammonia thiosulfate
n an ingredient of the photographic fixing solution that acts as a solvent for silver halides.

ammonia

a colorless alkaline gas, NH3, with a pungent odor and acrid taste, and highly soluble in water. See also ammonium.

blood ammonia
ammonia is a cerebrointoxicant and a high blood level causes a degenerative brain lesion. High blood levels of ammonia can occur in a number of diseases of the liver, in portacaval shunts, urea poisoning and liver dysfunction.
ammonia clearance
see ammonia tolerance test (below).
ammonia poisoning
ammonia gas may be released from artificial fertilizers or from decomposing manure and urine in slurry pits and silos and cause chronic poisoning manifested by conjunctivitis and coughing, sneezing and dyspnea. May cause dermatitis in animals bedded for long periods on deep litter. Acute poisoning causes heavy mortalities, as in urea poisoning. A secondary effect of chronic poisoning is hepatic encephalopathy. High ammonia content in water can cause deaths of fish, although additional factors such as high levels of suspended organic matter may be contributory.
ammonia pollution
of barn gases by production from fermentation of urine.
ammonia tolerance test (ATT)
assesses liver function and is particularly useful in detecting abnormalities of the hepatic portal vascular system. Blood ammonia levels are measured before and after the oral administration of ammonium chloride. See also portacaval shunt.
References in periodicals archive ?
Six (60%) patients received L-carnitine and one (10%) patient received sodium benzoate for 2 weeks Blood ammonia levels returned to normal value in 5 (50%) patients and reduced to more than half of the baseline in two (20%).
female carriers may run the risk of developing life-threatening episodes of high blood ammonia.
To prevent or treat HE in alcoholic patients with cirrhosis, physicians currently rely primarily on strategies to lower blood ammonia concentrations as well as on liver transplantation in patients with end-stage liver disease; new approaches also are also being investigated.
Speaking at a hearing of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC), Kathryn Zoon, PhD, director of the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, said 17-year-old Jesse Gelsinger's elevated blood ammonia levels were indicative of liver failure, thus disqualifying him from participating in the University of Pennsylvania gene therapy experiments.
Blood ammonia will increase at ~17 [micro]g/L per min at 25[degrees]C [13].
Increased sleepiness after eating protein (due to increased blood ammonia levels) and increased risk of infection may be late complications.
The primary efficacy measure was blood ammonia, assessed as 24-hour area under the curve on Days 14 and 28, the last day of each treatment period.
The primary efficacy measure is blood ammonia, assessed as 24-hour area under the curve on Days 14 and 28 (last day of each treatment period).
Acute liver failure leads to increased blood ammonia levels.
This study investigated whether drugs that promote alternative pathways to dismantle and excrete nitrogen-containing waste can lower the dangerously high levels of blood ammonia, called hyperammonemia.