The abnormalities documented in the cervical region were 8 hemivertebrae (C5 2x, C6 3x, C7 3x) followed by four dogs with atlanto-axial instability, and one dog with block vertebrae (C2-C3).
There were 33 hemivertebrae (Th5 2x, Th6 4x, Th7 5x, Th8 8x, Th9 4x, Th10 7x, Th11 2x, Th13 1x), 3 dogs with a 14th thoracic vertebrae, 3 dogs with a block vertebrae (Th12-13 1x, Th13-L1 2x), 2 dogs with fused spinous processes (Th8-Th9, Th9-Th10), 1 dog with spina bifida, and 1 dog with only 12 thoracic vertebrae.
An investigation into the validity of cervical spine motion palpation using subjects with congenital block vertebrae
as a 'gold standard' Humphreys BKIM, Delahaye M, Peterson CK BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004, 5:19 (15 June 2004) http://www.
1) Fusion of vertebrae at single or multiple levels is referred to as block vertebrae or spinal fusion or vertebral synostosis.
The block vertebrae may cause restricted movements, premature degenerative changes and associated neurological deficits.
The block vertebrae were studied and compared with their normal counterparts for analysis of body, lamina, pedicles, costal facets, foramina transversarium (FT), intervertebral foramina (IVF) and vertebral foramen (VF).
Measurements of the block vertebrae were taken with the help of a standard ruler.
RESULTS: Among a total of 2400 vertebrae examined, we identified 6 specimens of block vertebrae belonging to different levels which accounted for a total incidence of 0.
DISCUSSION: Block vertebrae mostly are attributed to developmental defects during differentiation of vertebral column, caused by non-segmentation of the primitive sclerotome.
Generally, restricted neck movement, muscular weakness, atrophy, neurological sensory loss with minor intermittent head and neck pain are associated with block vertebrae.
The incidence of block vertebrae varied in literature, but is most commonly seen in cervical region.