blast transformation

blast transformation

The activation by structural and biochemical changes, which occur in B and T cells after exposure to nonspecific mitogens (e.g., any substance that is capable of inducing cell division by mitosis). Blast transformation requires the binding of the mitogen to the appropriate receptor, followed by cross-linking of the receptors, changes in the flux of monovalent cations (Na+ and K+,)and activation of membrane-associated methyltransferases; this is accompanied by a simultaneous increase in phospholipid (especially phosphatidylinositol) synthesis and turnover, and an influx of Ca2+ ions (the exact role of which is unclear, but which may be related to the phosphorylation of critical enzymes or proteins).
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Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is an extramedullary myeloid tumor (granulocytic sarcoma) that can occur in one of three clinical settings: (1) in patients who have a history of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), during active disease or a recurrence: (2) in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorder or myelodysplastic syndromes, who are at increased risk of blast transformation or acute leukemia; or (3) in patients with no history of hematologic disease, although it commonly predates the development of leukemia, often within 1 year.
1999), blast transformation of human lymphocytes (Meng and Meng 2000), and malignant transformation (tumors formed on injection of arsenic-transformed cells into nude mice) of the rat liver epithelial cell line TRL 1215 (Zhao et al.
The majority of reported cases of leukemia cutis coincide with an aggressive clinical shift and blast transformation of CMML, whereas this patient's leukemic skin involvement was the initial presentation.