The NMR according to ethnicity, mean birthweight
, mean gestational age, mode of delivery, prenatal care, maternal age, maternal education, incidence of smoking, median household income, number of NICU beds per 10,000 births, and number of neonatal providers and obstetricians per 10,000 females of 15 to 44 years are shown in Table 1.
The investigators matched each VLBW child with the next child born in the same maternity ward who was of normal birthweight
and the same sex.
While researchers are still sorting out how being born heavy affects future health, Seppa notes that many of those earlier studies suggesting benefits of high birthweight
were published before the obesity epidemic hit full force.
He studied births from 1910 to 1945 and found that the cardiovascular mortality of individuals born during that time was inversely related to birthweight
Babies born to mothers who live in areas with air pollution and dense traffic are more likely to have a low birthweight
and smaller head circumference, according to a large European study.
Air pollutants - in particular fine particulates found in traffic fumes and industrial air pollutants - along with traffic density increased the risk of low birthweight
and reduced average head circumference of babies born at term, research has shown.
differences are not statistically significant in the IV analysis, but they are of the same magnitude as in the propensity score analysis, suggesting that they are not biased.
was defined as a body weight <2,500 g.
Study leader Professor Tim Spector, from King's College London, said: "Scientists have known for a long time that a person's weight at the time of birth is an important determinant of health in middle and old age, and that people with low birthweight
are more susceptible to age related diseases.
One of these, linked to aging traits such as lung function and bone mineral density, is also strongly associated with birthweight
-- a well-known developmental determinant of healthy aging.
Individual-level exposures to traffic-related air pollutants at their birth address were estimated by analysing emission from road traffic in the neighbourhood, population density and land use in the area, and the association between air pollution and insulin resistance was calculated using a model adjusted for several possible confounders including socioeconomic status of the family, birthweight
, pubertal status and BMI.
Caffeinated instant coffee (568 women) was compared with decaffeinated instant coffee (629 women) and it was found that reducing the caffeine intake of regular coffee drinkers (3+ cups/day) during the second and third trimester by an average of 182 mg/day did not affect birthweight
or length of gestation.