birth interval


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birth interval

The time elapsed between a full-term pregnancy and the termination or completion of the next pregnancy. Parents manage the interval between births for personal, psychological, or economic reasons. Intervals of less than 17 months or more than 5 years increase the risk of certain maternal and child health problems, such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, low birth weight, preterm birth, and maternal mortality.
Synonym: birth spacinginterpregnancy interval
See also: interval

birth

a coming into being; the act or process of being born. See also parturition.

birth canal
the canal through which the fetus passes in birth; comprising the uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva.
birth cohort
see cohort.
birth control
a term rarely used in dealing with animals. Instead see population control, contraception.
birth defects
see congenital defects.
birth difficulties
dystocia.
birth injury
occurs to the fetus during birth. Includes rib fracture and meningeal hemorrhage.
birth interval
the interval between succeeding parturitions. See also calving interval.
multiple birth
the birth of two or more offspring produced in the same gestation period.
birth order
the chronological order of births in a multiple birth. May have significance in causing stillbirths if the intervals between births are prolonged because of inertia.
premature birth
expulsion of the fetus from the uterus before termination of the normal gestation period, but after independent existence has become a possibility. In humans prematurity is defined as a pregnancy of less than 37 weeks in a pregnancy normally lasting 40 weeks.
birth process
comprises maturation of the fetus, relaxation of the bony pelvis and associated ligaments, softening and relaxation of the cervix, vagina, vulva and perineum, correct disposition of the fetus, contractions of the uterine myometrium and finally the only component under voluntary control, contraction of the abdominal muscles.
birth rate
the number of births during one year for the total population (crude birth rate), for the female population (refined birth rate), or for the female population of reproductive age (true birth rate). Not a term much used with reference to animals. See calving, lambing rate.
birth size
stature, including height at withers, crown to tail head length at birth.
birth weight
the weight at birth. A significant determinant of survival in any species and of the occurrence of dystocia. See also prolonged gestation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, the above trade-off warrants an optimal distribution of reproductive events throughout lifetime, including birth intervals and birth rates.
Further evidence of the effects of preceding birth intervals on neonatal, infant, and under-five-years mortality and nutritional status in developing countries: evidence from the demographic health surveys.
There was no statistically significant difference in the average birth interval between women who used contraception (46%) and those who did not (54%).
Rural TFR, Median Birth Interval, and Teen Childbearing Area Total Median Fertility number of Percentage Rate months of teens who (TFR) since have begun preceding childbearing birth Urban 2.
To our knowledge, it's the first time that later health consequences of birth intervals have been investigated in a developed- country population.
Many older women, although their fecundity might be ebbing, sought far wider birth intervals than child health alone seemed to demand.
Maternal factors, which are biological attributes of birth, such as the age of mother at the time of childbirth, birth order and birth interval [Forste (1994); Rutstein (1984)], have significant effects on child survival.
The relation of closed birth interval to the sex of the preceding child and the sexual orientation of the succeeding child.
Alternatively, mean birth rates can be estimated as the inverse of the mean birth interval, but this approach is also biased because: (1) the measurement of longer birth intervals is obviously constrained by the length of the study, and, therefore, mean birth intervals may be underestimated, and (2) if some animals are not seen every year, mean birth intervals will tend to be overestimated (Baker et al.
Also, birth interval analysis provides a powerful tool to study the impact of contraception upon fertility, and this is perhaps its greatest asset to fertility analysis.
Birth certificates were used to obtain information about the mother's education, age, marital status, birth interval, and parity; the infant's birthweight and birth date; and the number of prenatal-care visits for that pregnancy.
03% women had birth interval more than 3 years, 50% had birth interval more than 2 years but less than 3 years, and 9.