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The time elapsed between a full-term pregnancy and the termination or completion of the next pregnancy. Parents manage the interval between births for personal, psychological, or economic reasons. Intervals of less than 17 months or more than 5 years increase the risk of certain maternal and child health problems, such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, low birth weight, preterm birth, and maternal mortality.Synonym: birth spacinginterpregnancy interval
See also: interval
a coming into being; the act or process of being born. See also parturition.
the canal through which the fetus passes in birth; comprising the uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva.
see congenital defects.
occurs to the fetus during birth. Includes rib fracture and meningeal hemorrhage.
the interval between succeeding parturitions. See also calving interval.
the birth of two or more offspring produced in the same gestation period.
the chronological order of births in a multiple birth. May have significance in causing stillbirths if the intervals between births are prolonged because of inertia.
expulsion of the fetus from the uterus before termination of the normal gestation period, but after independent existence has become a possibility. In humans prematurity is defined as a pregnancy of less than 37 weeks in a pregnancy normally lasting 40 weeks.
comprises maturation of the fetus, relaxation of the bony pelvis and associated ligaments, softening and relaxation of the cervix, vagina, vulva and perineum, correct disposition of the fetus, contractions of the uterine myometrium and finally the only component under voluntary control, contraction of the abdominal muscles.
stature, including height at withers, crown to tail head length at birth.
the weight at birth. A significant determinant of survival in any species and of the occurrence of dystocia. See also prolonged gestation.