bipedalism


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bipedalism

a mode of locomotion found in many primates (particularly man) and birds, in which only the hind limbs are used in walking. True bipedalism (i.e. where locomotion is normally bipedal) has required evolutionary changes to the vertebral column and pelvis, with their associated musculature. A principal advantage of bipedalism would seem to be that the forelimbs can become modified for a nonwalking function, e.g. tool handling in man, flight in birds.

bipedalism

habitual weight-bearing and locomotion on paired lower limbs
References in periodicals archive ?
s (2007) proposal of arboreal bipedalism in a common hominin ancestor as a pre-adaptation to terrestrial bipedalism already recognise topography implicitly; the complex structural configuration of branches is seen as closely linked to the anatomy of the last common ancestor (LCA) of chimpanzees and humans.
This more human-like form of walking is incredibly energetically efficient, suggesting that reduced energy costs were very important in the evolution of bipedalism prior to the origins of our own genus, Homo," Raichlen said.
The concept of an arboreal origin for haoitual human bipedalism was first proposed over a century ago.
The lower spine of humans is highly specialized for habitual bipedalism, and is therefore a key region for assessing whether this uniquely human form of locomotion was present in Oreopithecus," says Shapiro, a professor of anthropology.
Dr Isabelle Winder, from the Department of Archaeology at York and one of the paper's authors, said: "Our research shows that bipedalism may have developed as a response to the terrain, rather than a response to climatically-driven vegetation changes.
Beneath the author's engaging play of facts and stories, however, lie assertions that would take more work to prove than he is willing to do, or that are not provable at all: "Did bipedalism actually encourage music?
This hypothesis, known as the "obstrepic dilemma," proposed that the evolution of bipedalism in humans had restricted the size of a woman's pelvis and birth canal, meaning that a big-brained human baby had to exit the womb at a less developed stage than other primates.
That an Ardipithecus-type foot should persist so late suggests our early ancestors trod a more tortuous evolutionary path towards full bipedalism than previously thought, said team member Bruce Latimer, of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.
One of the defining characteristics of hominins is bipedalism, and we are fast approaching an almost seamless fossil record of skeletal adaptations progressing through intermediate stages to fully bipedal, with the requisite changes in foot, ankle, knee, pelvis, vertebral column, upper extremities, and forward placement of the foramen magnum.
Tool-use also fit with the distinctive trait of walking upright: bipedalism apparently freed the hands to do their important work (Darwin, 1871, I.
We can, however, think about the new horizons opened up in human history by the remarkable new association of anatomy, language, self-reflection, and culture as also closely related to the emergence of obligatory bipedalism.
Walking is our most fundamental mode of transportation, an ordinary act with a long human history, whether you commence that history some six million years ago with the origins of bipedalism (Plato called man "a featherless biped") or religion ("And they heard the voice of the LORD GOD walking in the garden in the cool of the day," Genesis 3:8).