We used bioimpedance analysis for the fluid volume assessment to answer the questions, Is residual-limb fluid volume affected by adding or removing socks, and are the changes for adding a sock of comparable magnitude but opposite in direction from those for removing a sock?
LIFEGARD II with ICG (Impedance CardioGraphy) uses Thoracic Electrical Bioimpedance (TEB) to measure continuous cardiac output, and is the only patient monitor that has ICG totally integrated with all other standard, non-invasive vital signs.
Bioimpedance was performed by Bia/STA 101 (Akern, Firenze, IT); measurements were obtained in a resting condition: whole body impedance was measured by pregelled electrodes (Red Dot, 3M, Neuss, GER) on right limbs following the standard tetrapolar method described elsewhere (Sun et al.
Using bioimpedance analysis, we measured extracellular fluid volume changes on individuals with transtibial amputation while they ambulated with either elevated vacuum sockets, suction sockets, or sockets with lock-and-pin suspension.
Body composition was assessed by a single-frequency electrical bioimpedance analyser (EFG, Akern, Pontassieve, Italy), giving values of bodily resistance and reactance that were integrated with sex, age, weight and height and processed by Bodygram PRO software (Akern, Pontassieve, Italy).