In particular, the classic morphologic depiction of chronic photoactivation of melanocytes includes lentiginous (single cell) melanocytic proliferation with cellular enlargement, the potential for nuclear hyperchromasia, binucleation
and multinucleation, and low-level pagetoid ascent.
The following are the criteria used for scoring the cell inclusions: (i) only cells with a distinct cytoplasm and distinct binucleation
were analyzed for the presence of MN, (ii) only MN entirely inside the cytoplasm, separated from the main nucleus and with a diameter <1/3 of the size of the main nucleus were scored, and (iii) only MN staining the same as or lighter than the nucleus were scored.
For liver, we analysed the centrality of nucleus, number of hepatocytes with binucleation
, congestion of central vein, leukocytes infiltration, number of kupffer cells and swelling lumen by the blood cells and congestion of sinusoids (Vieira et al.
Liver sections from animals given paracetamol showed marked regenerative activity in the form of binucleation
, nuclear enlargement and prominent nucleoli.
2] arrest, binucleation
and single-parameter DNA flow cytometric analysis.
There are also associated changes in the cell nucleus, such as enlargement, smudging of the cell's chromatin, as well as binucleation
and membrane wrinkling.
It is composed of 3 types of cells: (1) the basal cells, which are cylindrical to flat and in contact with the underlying fibroconnective tissue or lamina propria--the basal cell layer is thought to harbor urothelial stem cells; (2) the intermediate cells, which are cuboidal to columnar cells, overlie the basal cells, and usually have the same orientation toward the bladder lumen; and (3) the umbrella cells, which are larger flat eosinophilic cells, with ample pink cytoplasm and variable nuclear reactive/degenerative atypia such as binucleation
, smudging, and nucleoli.
Asbestos fibers also induce binucleation
, which is a consequence of mitotic abnormalities in pleural mesothelial cells and macrophages.
Renal oncocytoma nuclei are typically single, although binucleation
can be seen, and they are centrally located and have regular nuclear membranes and absent to prominent nucleoli (Figure 3, C and F).
Some cells may show binucleation
The dysplastic features included nuclear budding, bilobed or multilobulated nuclei, and occasional binucleation
Koilocytes may show binucleation
or multinucleation and individual cell keratinization resulting in parakeratosis.