bile peritonitis


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peritonitis

 [per″i-to-ni´tis]
inflammation of the peritoneum.
Acute Peritonitis. Acute peritonitis may be produced by inflammation of abdominal organs, by irritating substances from a perforated gallbladder or gastric ulcer, by rupture of a cyst, or by irritation from blood, as in cases of internal bleeding.
Symptoms and Diagnosis. Immediate and intense pain is felt at the site of infection, followed usually by fever, vomiting, and extreme weakness. The abdomen becomes rigid and sensitive to the touch. The patient may suffer mental confusion, fever, prostration, or shock. Although antibiotics have greatly reduced the mortality rate of acute peritonitis, the infection should be treated and controlled immediately; it can be fatal if neglected.

Diagnosis is based on manual examination, x-ray films, and blood tests.
Treatment. The basic treatment for acute peritonitis is a combination of surgery, antibiotics, and other measures. The peritoneal cavity often must be opened and the toxic material removed. The original source of infection, such as an inflamed appendix, may have to be removed, or an abscess caused by the peritonitis may have to be drained. Antibiotics are used to fight the infection itself.

The patient usually takes nothing by mouth. Fluids are given intravenously. Narcotics and sedatives are often used to relieve pain and ensure rest. Treatment may also include blood transfusions and suction through a nasogastric tube to relieve abdominal pressure and to prevent accumulation of gas in the intestines.
Chronic Peritonitis. The chronic form of this disease is comparatively rare, and is often associated with tuberculosis. Less frequently it may result from longstanding irritation caused by the presence in the abdomen of a foreign body such as gunshot.

In general, symptoms of chronic peritonitis are milder than those of acute peritonitis. Symptoms of tuberculous peritonitis are abdominal pain, low-grade fever, constipation, and general ill health, including loss of weight and appetite. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition.
Peritonitis. Infection spreads via lymphatics to peritoneum; formation of a pelvic abscess may occur. From McKinney et al., 2000.
adhesive peritonitis peritonitis characterized by adhesions between adjacent serous structures.
bile peritonitis (biliary peritonitis) that due to the presence of bile in the peritoneum; choleperitoneum.
gas peritonitis peritonitis with the accumulation of gas in the peritoneum.
septic peritonitis peritonitis caused by a pyogenic microorganism.
silent peritonitis asymptomatic peritonitis.

bile per·i·to·ni·tis

inflammation of the peritoneum caused by the escape of bile into the free peritoneal cavity.
Synonym(s): choleperitonitis

bile peritonitis

Peritoneal inflammation caused by leakage of bile into the peritoneal cavity, which may be caused by gallbladder perforation, biliary trauma (thoracoabdominal or iatrogenic trauma), spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic bile ducts or peptic ulcers.

bile peritonitis

Biliary peritonitis Clinical medicine Peritoneal inflammation caused by leakage of bile into the peritoneal cavity

bile

a clear yellow, orange or green fluid produced by the liver. It is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder, and is poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts when needed for digestion. Bile helps in alkalinizing the intestinal contents and plays a role in the digestion and absorption of fat; its chief constitutents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin and electrolytes. See also bile duct, biliary.

bile acids
steroid acids derived from cholesterol; classified as primary, those synthesized in the liver, e.g. cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid, or secondary, those produced from primary bile acids by intestinal bacteria and returned to the liver by enterohepatic circulation, e.g. deoxycholic and lithocholic acid.
bile acid assay
are used in the diagnosis of liver disease and portacaval shunts when there are increased levels in the blood.
bile lake
bile duct obstruction may cause distention and rupture of biliary canaliculi. Small bile lakes result causing focal hepatic necrosis.
bile passages
bile canaliculi drain into bile ductules and interlobular ducts. These unite to form a series of hepatic ducts which carry the bile to the porta where they unite to form the common hepatic duct. This duct receives a cystic duct from the gallbladder (absent in the horse) and thence becomes the bile duct.
bile peritonitis
leakage of bile from the common bile duct or gallbladder may occur as a result of trauma, including perforation during percutaneous needle biopsy of the liver, and (rarely) erosion from biliary calculi. A chemical peritonitis results and may be fatal unless surgical repair is accomplished.
bile pigment
any one of the coloring matters of the bile; they are bilirubin, biliverdin, bilifuscin, biliprasin, choleprasin, bilihumin and bilicyanin. See also urobilinogen, stercobilin.
bile pleuritis
inflammation of the pleura resulting from perforating thoracic trauma with hepatodiaphragmatic fistula or iatrogenically from percutaneous liver biopsy techniques.
bile reflux
usually refers to movement of bile from the duodenum into the stomach where it may alter the gastric mucosal barrier causing gastritis and ulceration.
white bile
1. bile containing much mucin.
2. bile trapped in obstructed system for a long period and from which pigments have been resorbed.