bile acids


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bile

 [bīl]
a clear yellow or orange fluid produced by the liver. It is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder, and is poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts when needed for digestion. Bile helps in alkalinizing the intestinal contents and plays a role in the emulsification, absorption, and digestion of fat; its chief constituents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin, and electrolytes. The bile salts emulsify fats by breaking up large fat globules into smaller ones so that they can be acted on by the fat-splitting enzymes of the intestine and pancreas. A healthy liver produces bile according to the body's needs and does not require stimulation by drugs. Infection or disease of the liver, inflammation of the gallbladder, or the presence of gallstones can interfere with the flow of bile.
bile acids steroid acids derived from cholesterol; classified as primary, those synthesized in the liver, e.g., cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids, or secondary, those produced from primary bile acids by intestinal bacteria and returned to the liver by enterohepatic circulation, e.g., deoxycholic and lithocholic acids.
bile ducts the canals or passageways that conduct bile. There are three bile ducts: the hepatic duct drains bile from the liver; the cystic duct is an extension of the gallbladder and conveys bile from the gallbladder. These two ducts may be thought of as branches that drain into the “trunk,” or common bile duct. The common bile duct passes through the wall of the small intestine at the duodenum and joins with the pancreatic duct to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla, or ampulla of Vater. At the opening into the small intestine there is a sphincter that automatically controls the flow of bile into the intestine.

The bile ducts may become obstructed by gallstones, benign or malignant tumors, or a severe local infection. Various disorders of the gallbladder or bile ducts are often diagnosed by ultrasonography, radionuclide imaging, and x-ray examination of the gallbladder and bile ducts using a special contrast medium so that these hollow structures can be clearly outlined on the x-ray film.

bile ac·ids

steroid acids found in bile, for example, taurocholic and glycocholic acids, used therapeutically when biliary secretion is inadequate and for biliary colic. Their physiologic roles include fat emulsification. Their synthesis is reduced in disorders of the peroxisomes.

bile ac·ids

(bīl as'idz)
Steroid acids found in bile (e.g., taurocholic and glycocholic acids), used therapeutically when biliary secretion is inadequate and for biliary colic. Their physiologic roles include fat emulsification.

bile acids

Cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. These are produced in the liver from cholesterol, linked with glycine or taurine to form BILE SALTS and passed into the small intestine in the bile.

bile

a clear yellow, orange or green fluid produced by the liver. It is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder, and is poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts when needed for digestion. Bile helps in alkalinizing the intestinal contents and plays a role in the digestion and absorption of fat; its chief constitutents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin and electrolytes. See also bile duct, biliary.

bile acids
steroid acids derived from cholesterol; classified as primary, those synthesized in the liver, e.g. cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid, or secondary, those produced from primary bile acids by intestinal bacteria and returned to the liver by enterohepatic circulation, e.g. deoxycholic and lithocholic acid.
bile acid assay
are used in the diagnosis of liver disease and portacaval shunts when there are increased levels in the blood.
bile lake
bile duct obstruction may cause distention and rupture of biliary canaliculi. Small bile lakes result causing focal hepatic necrosis.
bile passages
bile canaliculi drain into bile ductules and interlobular ducts. These unite to form a series of hepatic ducts which carry the bile to the porta where they unite to form the common hepatic duct. This duct receives a cystic duct from the gallbladder (absent in the horse) and thence becomes the bile duct.
bile peritonitis
leakage of bile from the common bile duct or gallbladder may occur as a result of trauma, including perforation during percutaneous needle biopsy of the liver, and (rarely) erosion from biliary calculi. A chemical peritonitis results and may be fatal unless surgical repair is accomplished.
bile pigment
any one of the coloring matters of the bile; they are bilirubin, biliverdin, bilifuscin, biliprasin, choleprasin, bilihumin and bilicyanin. See also urobilinogen, stercobilin.
bile pleuritis
inflammation of the pleura resulting from perforating thoracic trauma with hepatodiaphragmatic fistula or iatrogenically from percutaneous liver biopsy techniques.
bile reflux
usually refers to movement of bile from the duodenum into the stomach where it may alter the gastric mucosal barrier causing gastritis and ulceration.
white bile
1. bile containing much mucin.
2. bile trapped in obstructed system for a long period and from which pigments have been resorbed.
References in periodicals archive ?
NGM Bio's most advanced compound, NGM282, a wholly-owned asset, is being studied in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and other disorders of bile acid synthesis, as well as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
The acid treatment also reduced its bile acid binding, water up-take and swelling capacity.
For enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, both the hepatocyte and the enterocyte must efficiently transport bile acids.
Mean serum bile acid levels and pruritus at the end of the study were
Mean serum bile acid levels and pruritus at the end of the study were lower in both SHP625 and placebo treated groups as compared to baseline.
Pharmacology researchers are eager to exploit the role of bile acids as cholesterol-regulating signals, and have already rushed to produce semisynthetic versions aimed at lowering cholesterol.
Jatrorrhizine promoted the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and the excretion of bile acids by feces
By selectively elevating BSH levels in conventionally raised mice with a normal microbiota, the study demonstrated BSH can modify plasma bile acid profiles which can influence pathways governing lipid metabolism, metabolic signalling events, circadian rhythm and immune function.
The hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of CS and other digestion-resistant polysaccharides are associated with their binding capacities against bile acids (23), (24).
In addition, levels of serum bile acids, which are another biomarker of cholestasis, and levels of liver triglycerides, an indicator of steatosis, were nearly normal in the CDCA-treated TPN piglets.
Individual bile acids were added to standard Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media to achieve physiological concentrations,4 as shown in Table 1.
The archaeal bile acids are steroidal hormones which can bind GPCR and modulate D2 regulating the conversion of T4 to T3 which activates uncoupling proteins reducing redox stress.